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Carotid bruit

It may occur as the result of carotid artery stenosis though some disagree, however, most carotid bruits, particularly those found in younger or asymptomatic patients, are not related to any disease and are termed "innocent carotid bruits". A car ...

                                               

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency

Chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency is a term developed by Italian researcher Paolo Zamboni in 2008 to describe compromised flow of blood in the veins draining the central nervous system. Zamboni hypothesized that it played a role in the c ...

                                               

Chronic venous insufficiency

Chronic venous insufficiency is a medical condition in which blood pools in the veins, straining the walls of the vein. The most common cause of CVI is superficial venous reflux which is a treatable condition. As functional venous valves are requ ...

                                               

Corona phlebectatica

Corona phlebectatica is a cutaneous sign of chronic venous insufficiency, characterized by abnormally dilated veins around the ankle. It is characterised by the presence of abnormally visible cutaneous blood vessels at the ankle with venous cups, ...

                                               

Diabetic angiopathy

Diabetic angiopathy is a form of angiopathy associated with diabetic complications. While not exclusive, the two most common forms are diabetic retinopathy and diabetic nephropathy, whose pathophysiologies are largely identical.

                                               

Dural arteriovenous fistula

A dural arteriovenous fistula or Malformation, is an abnormal direct connection between a meningeal artery and a meningeal vein or dural venous sinus.

                                               

Endothelial dysfunction

In vascular diseases, endothelial dysfunction is a systemic pathological state of the endothelium. Along with acting as a semi-permeable membrane, the endothelium is responsible for maintaining vascular tone and regulating oxidative stress by rel ...

                                               

Familial aortic dissection

Familial aortic dissection or FAD refers to the splitting of the wall of the aorta in either the arch, ascending or descending portions. FAD is thought to be passed down as an autosomal dominant disease and once inherited will result in dissectio ...

                                               

Fatty streak

A fatty streak is the first grossly visible lesion in the development of atherosclerosis. It appears as an irregular yellow-white discoloration on the luminal surface of an artery. It consists of aggregates of foam cells, which are lipoprotein-lo ...

                                               

Hypotension

Hypotension is low blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps out blood. Blood pressure is indicated by two numbers, the systolic blood pressure and the diastolic blood pressu ...

                                               

Inflammatory aortic aneurysm

Inflammatory aortic aneurysm, also known as Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm, is a type of abdominal aortic aneurysm where the walls of the aneurysm become thick and inflamed. Similar to AAA, IAA occurs in the abdominal region. IAA is close ...

                                               

Intermittent claudication

Intermittent claudication, is a symptom that describes muscle pain on mild exertion, classically in the calf muscle, which occurs during exercise, such as walking, and is relieved by a short period of rest. It is classically associated with early ...

                                               

Lupus vasculitis

Lupus vasculitis is a complication of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in which the autoimmune response causes the deposition of immune complexes, such as rheumatoid factor, within the blood vessels. It may manifest in as high as 56% of lupus patient ...

                                               

Macrovascular disease

Macrovascular disease is a disease of any large blood vessels in the body. It is a disease of the large blood vessels, including the coronary arteries, the aorta, and the sizable arteries in the brain and in the limbs. Sometimes it happens when a ...

                                               

Metanephric dysplastic hematoma of the sacral region

Metanephric dysplastic hematoma of the sacral region has been described by Cozzutto and Lazzaroni-Fossati in 1980, by Posalaki et al. in 1981 and by Cozzutto et al. in 1982. Three additional cases were seen by Finegold. In the event that this Coz ...

                                               

Monckebergs arteriosclerosis

Monckebergs arteriosclerosis, or Monckebergs sclerosis, is a form of arteriosclerosis or vessel hardening, where calcium deposits are found in the muscular middle layer of the walls of arteries. It is an example of dystrophic calcification. This ...

                                               

Obliterating endarteritis

Obliterating endarteritis is severe proliferating endarteritis that results in an occlusion of the lumen of the artery. Obliterating endarteritis can occur due to a variety of medical conditions such as a complication of radiation poisoning, tube ...

                                               

Paget–Schroetter disease

Paget–Schroetter disease, is a form of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis, a medical condition in which blood clots form in the deep veins of the arms. These DVTs typically occur in the axillary and/or subclavian veins.

                                               

Peripheral vasculopathy

Peripheral vasculopathy is a general classification for disorders of the blood vessels relative to a persons arms, legs or extremities including peripheral vascular disease.

                                               

Phlegmasia alba dolens

Phlegmasia alba dolens is part of a spectrum of diseases related to deep vein thrombosis. Historically, it was commonly seen during pregnancy and in mothers who have just given birth. In cases of pregnancy, it is most often seen during the third ...

                                               

Pseudothrombophlebitis

Pseudothrombophlebitis syndrome is a clinical condition where there are signs and symptoms of phlebitis in the absence of a thrombophlebitis lesion. Symptoms include pain, swelling, erythema and tenderness evolving over hours or days. It is often ...

                                               

Thoracic aortic aneurysm

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is an aortic aneurysm that presents primarily in the thorax. A thoracic aortic aneurysm is the "ballooning" in the upper part of the aorta above the diaphragm. Untreated or unrecognized they can be fatal because of the ...

                                               

Vascular anomaly

A vascular anomaly is any of a range of lesions from a simple birthmark to a large tumor that may be disfiguring. They are caused by a disorder of the vascular system. A vascular anomaly is a localized defect in blood or lymph vessels. These defe ...

                                               

Vascular disease

Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body. It is a subgroup of cardiovascular disease. Disorders in this vast network of blood vessels, can cause a range of health ...

                                               

Vaso-occlusive crisis

A vaso-occlusive crisis is a common painful complication of sickle cell anemia in adolescents and adults. It is a form of sickle cell crisis. Sickle cell anemia – most common in those of African, Hispanic, and Mediterranean origin – leads to sick ...

                                               

Venous ulcer

Venous ulcers are wounds that are thought to occur due to improper functioning of venous valves, usually of the legs. They are the major occurrence of chronic wounds, occurring in 70% to 90% of leg ulcer cases. Venous ulcers develop mostly along ...

                                               

Vascular access

Vascular access refers to a rapid, direct method of introducing or removing devices or chemicals from the bloodstream. In hemodialysis, vascular access is used to remove the patients blood so that it can be filtered through the dialyzer. Three pr ...

                                               

Ambulatory phlebectomy

This technique has been attributed to Dr Robert Muller a Swiss dermatologist who started experimenting with this technique in the mid-fifties of the last century because he was unsatisfied with the results of sclerotherapy. Moreover, he wanted an ...

                                               

Angiography

Angiography or arteriography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the inside, or lumen, of blood vessels and organs of the body, with particular interest in the arteries, veins, and the heart chambers. This is traditionally done by in ...

                                               

Angioplasty

Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, is a minimally invasive endovascular procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis. A deflat ...

                                               

Balloon pulmonary angioplasty

Balloon pulmonary angioplasty is an emerging minimally invasive procedure to treat chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension in people who are not suitable for pulmonary thromboendarterectomy or still have residual pulmonary hypertension and ...

                                               

CHIVA method

CHIVA method is a type of surgery used to treat varicose veins that occur as a result of long term venous insufficiency. The term is a French acronym for Conservatrice Hemodynamique de lInsuffisance Veineuse en Ambulatoire. As of 2015 there is pr ...

                                               

Embolectomy

Embolectomy is the emergency surgical removal of emboli which are blocking blood circulation. It usually involves removal of thrombi, and is then referred to as thrombectomy. Embolectomy is an emergency procedure often as the last resort because ...

                                               

Microangiography

Microangiography is a type of angiography that consists of the radiography of small blood or lymphatic vessels of an organ. While most other types of angiography cannot produce images of vessels smaller than 200 µm in diameter, microangiography d ...

                                               

Radial artery puncture

Radial artery puncture is a medical procedure performed to obtain a sample of arterial blood for gas analysis. A needle is inserted into the radial artery and spontaneously fills with blood. The syringe is either prepacked with a small amount of ...

                                               

Thrombectomy

Mechanical thrombectomy, or simply thrombectomy, is the interventional procedure of removing a blood clot from a blood vessel. It is commonly performed in the cerebral arteries. The effectiveness of thrombectomy was confirmed in several randomise ...

                                               

Thrombolysis

Thrombolysis, also called fibrinolytic therapy, is the breakdown of blood clots formed in blood vessels, using medication. It is used in ST elevation myocardial infarction, stroke, and in cases of severe venous thromboembolism. The main complicat ...

                                               

Transradial catheterization

Transradial catheterization is an endovascular procedure or catheterization procedure performed to diagnose and treat arterial disease. Endovascular procedure can be performed achieving access in to body’s arterial system from either femoral arte ...

                                               

Batson venous plexus

The Batson venous plexus is a network of valveless veins in the human body that connect the deep pelvic veins and thoracic veins to the internal vertebral venous plexuses. Because of their location and lack of valves, they are believed to provide ...

                                               

Deep vein

A deep vein is a vein that is deep in the body. This contrasts with superficial veins that are close to the bodys surface. Deep veins are almost always beside an artery with the same name, such as the femoral vein near the femoral artery. Togethe ...

                                               

Hepatic portal system

In human anatomy, the hepatic portal system is the system of veins comprising the hepatic portal vein and its tributaries. It is also called the portal venous system and splanchnic veins, which is not synonymous with hepatic portal system and is ...

                                               

Perforator vein

Perforator veins are so called because they perforate the deep fascia of muscles, to connect the superficial veins to the deep veins where they drain. Their role is to maintain the correct initial drain of blood. They have valves that prevent blo ...

                                               

Superficial vein

Superficial vein is a vein that is close to the surface of the body. This differs from deep veins that are far from the surface. Superficial veins are not paired with an artery, unlike the deep veins, which typically have an artery with the same ...

                                               

Venae cavae

The venae cavae are two large veins that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart. In humans there are the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, and both empty into the right atrium. They are located slightly off-center, to ...

                                               

Venule

A venule is a very small blood vessel in the microcirculation that allows blood to return from the capillary beds to drain into the larger blood vessels, the veins. Venules range from 7μm to 1mm in diameter. Veins contain approximately 70% of tot ...

                                               

Acute cardiac unloading

Acute cardiac unloading is any maneuver, therapy, or intervention that decreases the power expenditure of the ventricle and limits the hemodynamic forces that lead to ventricular remodeling after insult or injury to the heart. This technique is b ...

                                               

Cardiac contractility modulation

Cardiac Contractility Modulation is a therapy which is intended for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe heart failure with symptoms despite optimal medical therapy who can benefit from an improvement in cardiac output. The short- an ...

                                               

Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures

Obtaining a medical history is always the first "test", part of understanding the likelihood of significant disease, as detectable within the current limitations of clinical medicine. Yet heart problems often produce no symptoms until very advanc ...

                                               

Cardioversion

Cardioversion is a medical procedure by which an abnormally fast heart rate or other cardiac arrhythmia is converted to a normal rhythm using electricity or drugs. Synchronized electrical cardioversion uses a therapeutic dose of electric current ...

                                               

Catheter ablation

Catheter ablation is a procedure used to remove or terminate a faulty electrical pathway from sections of the hearts of those who are prone to developing cardiac arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, supraventricular tachycardi ...

Encyclopedic dictionary

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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