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ⓘ Religion



                                               

State religion

A state religion is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. A state with an official religion, while not secular, is not necessarily a theocracy, a country whose rulers have both secular and spiritual authority. State religions are official or government-sanctioned establishments of a religion, but the state does not need be under the control of the religion nor is the state-sanctioned religion necessarily under the control of the state. Official religions have been known throughout human history in almost all types of cultures, reaching into the Ancient Near East and p ...

                                               

Major religious groups

The worlds principal religions and spiritual traditions may be classified into a small number of major groups, although this is by no means a uniform practice. This theory began in the 18th century with the goal of recognizing the relative levels of civility in societies.

                                               

Magic and religion

Magical thinking in various forms is a cultural universal and an important aspect of religion. Magic is prevalent in all societies, regardless of whether they have organized religion or more general systems of animism or shamanism. Religion and magic became conceptually separated with the development of western monotheism, where the distinction arose between supernatural events sanctioned by mainstream religious doctrine and magic rooted in folk belief or occult speculation. In pre-monotheistic religious traditions, there is no fundamental distinction between religious practice and magic; ...

                                               

Shamanism

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. Beliefs and practices that have been categorized as "shamanic" have attracted the interest of scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, including anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, religious studies scholars, philosophers and psychologists. Hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal ...

                                               

Religious and philosophical views of Albert Einstein

Albert Einsteins religious views have been widely studied and often misunderstood. Einstein stated that he believed in the pantheistic God of Baruch Spinoza. He did not believe in a personal God who concerns himself with fates and actions of human beings, a view which he described as naïve. He clarified however that, "I am not an atheist", preferring to call himself an agnostic, or a "religious nonbeliever." Einstein also stated he did not believe in life after death, adding "one life is enough for me." He was closely involved in his lifetime with several humanist groups.

                                               

Hyper-real Religion

Hyper-Real Religion is a sociological term to describe a new consumer trend in acquiring and enacting spirituality. The term was first described in the book Religion and Popular Culture: A Hyper-Real Testament by Adam Possamai. The term is used to explore the intersection between post-modernity and religion/spirituality. The idea has been expanded and critiqued by a number of academics since its creation.

                                               

Civil religion

Civil religion, also referred to as a civic religion, is the implicit religious values of a nation, as expressed through public rituals, symbols, and ceremonies on sacred days and at sacred places. It is distinct from churches, although church officials and ceremonies are sometimes incorporated into the practice of civil religion. Countries described as having a civil religion include France, South Korea, the former Soviet Union, and the United States. As a concept, it originated in French political thought and became a major topic for U.S. sociologists since its use by Robert Bellah in 1960.

                                               

Folk religion

In religious studies and folkloristics, folk religion, popular religion, or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the official doctrines and practices of organized religion. The precise definition of folk religion varies among scholars. Sometimes also termed popular belief, it consists of ethnic or regional religious customs under the umbrella of a religion, but outside official doctrine and practices. The term "folk religion" is generally held to encompass two related but separate subjects. The first is the religious dimension of fo ...

                                               

Proto-Indo-European mythology

Proto-Indo-European mythology is the body of myths and stories associated with the Proto-Indo-Europeans, the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language. Although these stories are not directly attested, they have been reconstructed by scholars of comparative mythology based on the similarities in the languages and belief systems of Indo-European peoples. Various schools of thought exist regarding the precise nature of Proto-Indo-European mythology, which do not always agree with each other. The main mythologies used in comparative reconstruction are Vedic, Roma ...

                                               

Indo-Iranians

Indo-Iranian peoples, also known as Indo-Iranic peoples by scholars, and sometimes as Arya or Aryans from their self-designation, were a group of Indo-European peoples who brought the Indo-Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, to major parts of Eurasia in the second part of the 3rd millennium BCE. They eventually branched out into Iranian peoples and Indo-Aryan peoples.

                                               

Lived religion

Lived religion is the ethnographic and holistic framework for understanding the beliefs, practices and everyday experiences of religious and spiritual persons in religious studies. The term comes from the French tradition of sociology of religion la religion vecue ". The concept of lived religion was popularized in the late 20th century by religious study scholars like Robert A. Orsi and David D. Hall. The study of lived religion has come to include a wide range of subject areas as a means of exploring and emphasizing what a religious person does and what they believe. Today, the field of ...

                                               

Bon

Bon, also spelled Bon, is a Tibetan religion, which self-identifies as distinct from Tibetan Buddhism, although it shares the same overall teachings and terminology. It arose in the eleventh century and established its scriptures mainly from termas and visions by tertons such as Loden Nyingpo. Though Bon terma contain myths of Bon existing before the introduction of Buddhism in Tibet, "in truth the old religion was a new religion."

                                               

Christian denomination

A Christian denomination is a distinct religious body within Christianity, identified by traits such as a name, organization, leadership and doctrine. The Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, and Oriental Orthodox Churches, meaning the large majority, all self-describe as churches, whereas many Protestant denominations self-describe as congregations or fellowships. Divisions between one group and another are defined by authority and doctrine; issues such as the nature of Jesus, the authority of apostolic succession, ecclesiology, eschatology, and papal primacy may separate one d ...

                                               

Din (Arabic)

Dīn is an Arabic word with three general senses: judgment, custom, and religion. It is used by both Arab Muslims and Christians. In Islam, the word refers to the way of life Muslims must adopt to comply with divine law, encompassing beliefs, character and deeds. The term appears in the Quran 98 times with different connotations, including in the phrase yawm al-din, generally translated as Day of Judgment.

                                               

Hellenism (religion)

Hellenism, the Hellenic ethnic religion, also commonly known as Hellenismos, Hellenic Polytheism, Dodekatheism, or Olympianism, comprises various religious movements which revive or reconstruct ancient Greek religious practices, and which have publicly emerged since the 1990s. The Hellenic religion builds on traditional religion and on a traditional way of life, revolving around the Greek Gods, and primarily focused on the Twelve Olympians and embracing ancient Hellenic values and virtues. In 2017, Greek governmental authorities legally recognized Hellenic Ethnic Religion Hellenism as a "k ...

                                               

Natural religion

Natural religion most frequently means the "religion of nature", in which God, the soul, spirits, and all objects of the supernatural are considered as part of nature and not separate from it. Conversely, it is also used in philosophy, specifically Roman Catholic philosophy, to describe some aspects of religion that are said to be knowable apart from divine revelation through logic and reason alone, for example, the existence of the unmoved Mover, the first cause of the universe. Most authors consider natural religion as not only the foundation of monotheistic religions such as Judaism, Ch ...

                                               

Mari Native Religion

The Mari Native Religion, or Mari Paganism, is the ethnic religion of the Mari people, a Volga Finnic ethnic group based in the republic of Mari El, in Russia. The religion has undergone changes over time, particularly under the influence of neighbouring monotheisms. In the last few decades, while keeping its traditional features in the countryside, an organised Neopagan-kind revival has taken place. The Mari religion is based on the worship of the forces of nature, which man must honour and respect. Before the spread of monotheistic teachings amongst the Mari, they worshipped many gods th ...

                                               

Relationship between religion and science

Historians of science and of religion, philosophers, theologians, scientists, and others from various geographical regions and cultures have addressed various aspects of the relationship between religion and science. Even though the ancient and medieval worlds did not have conceptions resembling the modern understandings of "science" or of "religion", certain elements of modern ideas on the subject recur throughout history. The pair-structured phrases "religion and science" and "science and religion" first emerged in the literature in the 19th century. This coincided with the refining of " ...

                                               

Religion in Nazi Germany

In 1933, 5 years prior to the annexation of Austria into Germany, the population of Germany was approximately 67% Protestant and 33% Catholic, while the Jewish population was less than 1%. A census in May 1939, six years into the Nazi era and after the annexation of mostly Catholic Austria and mostly Catholic Czechoslovakia into Germany, indicates that 54% considered themselves Protestant, 40% Catholic, 3.5% self-identified as Gottglaubig, and 1.5% as "atheist". Smaller religious minorities such as the Jehovahs Witnesses and Bahai Faith were banned in Germany, while the eradication of Juda ...

                                               

Religious views of William Shakespeare

The religious views of William Shakespeare are the subject of an ongoing scholarly debate dating back more than 150 years. The general assumption about William Shakespeares religious affiliation is that he was a conforming member of the established Church of England. However, many scholars have speculated about his personal religious beliefs, based on analysis of the historical record and of his published work, with claims that Shakespeares family may have had Catholic sympathies and that he himself was a secret Catholic.

                                               

Religion in The Simpsons

Religion is one of many recurring themes on the American animated television series The Simpsons. Much of the series religious humor satirizes aspects of Christianity and religion in general. However, some episodes, such as "Bart Sells His Soul" and "Alone Again, Natura-Diddily", can be interpreted as having a spiritual theme. The show has been both praised and criticized by atheists, agnostics, liberals, conservatives and religious people in general for its portrayal of faith and religion in society. The show can function as a mediator of biblical literacy among younger generations of irr ...

                                               

Dinka religion

The supreme, creator god, Nhialic, is the god of the sky and rain, and the ruler of all the spirits. He is believed to be present in all of creation, and to control the destiny of every human, plant and animal on Earth. Nhialic is also known as Jaak, Juong or Dyokin by other Nilotic groups such as the Nuer and Shilluk. Nhialac created ex-nihilo and rarely involves itself with the affairs of humans. There are several versions of the Dinka creation myth which mainly concerns itself with the creation of humans. The first humans are Garang and Abuk. In some cases Nhialac created humans by blow ...

                                               

Homosexuality and religion

The relationship between religion and homosexuality has varied greatly across time and place, within and between different religions and denominations, with regard to different forms of homosexuality and bisexuality. Generally speaking as well as by denomination, the present-day doctrines of the worlds major religions vary vastly in their attitudes toward these sexual orientations. Among the religious denominations which generally oppose these orientations, there are many different types of actions which they may take: this can range from quietly discouraging homosexual activity, explicitl ...

                                               

Law and religion

Law and religion is the interdisciplinary study of relationships between law, especially public law, and religion. Vogue Magazine reports that during the late 1900, a new law and religion approach emerged that progressively built its own contribution to religious studies. Over a dozen scholarly organizations and committees were formed by 1983, and a scholarly quarterly, the Journal of Law and Religion, was first published that year. The Ecclesiastical Law Journal began publication in 1987. The Rutgers Journal of Law and Religion was founded in 1999. The Oxford Journal of Law and Religion w ...

                                               

Religion and schizophrenia

The relationship between religion and schizophrenia is of particular interest to psychiatrists because of the similarities between religious experiences and psychotic episodes; religious experiences often involve auditory and/or visual hallucinations, and those with schizophrenia commonly report similar hallucinations, along with a variety of beliefs that are commonly recognized by modern medical practitioners as delusional. In general, religion has been found to have "both a protective and a risk increasing effect" for schizophrenia. A common report from those with schizophrenia is some t ...

                                               

Maya religion

The traditional Maya religion of the extant Maya peoples of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and the Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatan states of Mexico is part of the wider frame of Mesoamerican religion. As is the case with many other contemporary Mesoamerican religions, it results from centuries of symbiosis with Roman Catholicism. When its pre-Spanish antecedents are taken into account, however, traditional Maya religion has already existed for more than two millennia as a recognizably distinct phenomenon. Before the advent of Christianity, it was spread over many indigenous kingdoms, a ...

                                               

Religion in ancient Rome

Religion in ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy. The Romans thought of themselves as highly religious, and attributed their success as a world power to their collective piety in maintaining good relations with the gods. The Romans are known for the great number of deities they honored, a capacity that earned the mockery of early Christian polemicists. The presence of Gree ...

                                               

Ryukyuan religion

The Ryukyuan religion, Ryukyu Shintō, Nirai Kanai Shinkō, or Utaki Shinkō is the indigenous belief system of the Ryukyu Islands. While specific legends and traditions may vary slightly from place to place and island to island, the Ryukyuan religion is generally characterized by ancestor worship and the respecting of relationships between the living, the dead, and the gods and spirits of the natural world. Some of its beliefs, such as those concerning genius loci spirits and many other beings classified between gods and humans, are indicative of its ancient animistic roots, as is its concer ...

                                               

Ethnic religion

In religious studies, an ethnic religion is a religion or belief associated with a particular ethnic group. Ethnic religions are often distinguished from universal, multiracial religions which are not limited in ethnic, national or racial scope, such as Christianity, Hinduism and Islam.

                                               

Mordvin Native Religion

Mordvin Neopaganism, or the Mordvin native religion or Erzyan native religion, is the modern revival of the ethnic religion of the Mordvins, peoples of Volga Finnic ethnic stock dwelling in the republic of Mordovia within Russia, or in bordering lands of Russia. The religion is often called Mastorava, from the homonymous epic poem or the mother goddess of the Mordvin pantheon. The name of the originating god according to the Mordvin tradition is Ineshkipaz. The Mordvins have been almost fully Christianised since the times of Kievan Rus, although Pagan customs were preserved in the folklore ...

                                               

Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, an absence of belief in the existence of deities. Less broadly, atheism is a rejection of the belief that any deities exist. In an even narrower sense, atheism is specifically the position that there are no deities. Atheism is contrasted with theism, which, in its most general form, is the belief that at least one deity exists. The etymological root for the word atheism originated before the 5th century BCE from the ancient Greek ἄθεος atheos, meaning "without gods". In antiquity, it had multiple uses as a pejorative term applied to those thought to rejec ...

Religion
                                     

ⓘ Religion

Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.

Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration of deities and/or saints, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, and other things. Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs.

There are an estimated 10.000 distinct religions worldwide. About 84% of the worlds population is affiliated with either Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, or some form of folk religion. The religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion, atheists, and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs.

The study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief.

                                     

1. Concept and etymology

Religion from O.Fr. religion religious community, from L. religionem nom. religio "respect for what is sacred, reverence for the gods, sense of right, moral obligation, sanctity", "obligation, the bond between man and the gods") is derived from the Latin religiō, the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re again with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully. The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect, probably from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re again + ligare or to reconnect, which was made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28. The medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the religion of the Golden Fleece, of a knight of the religion of Avys".

In classic antiquity, religio broadly meant conscientiousness, sense of right, moral obligation, or duty to anything. In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts; never as doctrine, practice, or actual source of knowledge. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors, rulers, and even towards God. Religio was most often used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, caution, anxiety, fear; feelings of being bound, restricted, inhibited; which arose from heightened attention in any mundane context. The term was also closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times. When religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s. The concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities.

In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity. The term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more frequently used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others; to cultic practices. It was often contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear.

The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language. Such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-Western cultures distorts what people do and believe.

The concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, and others did not have a word or even a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the people or the cultures in which these sacred texts were written. For example, there is no precise equivalent of religion in Hebrew, and Judaism does not distinguish clearly between religious, national, racial, or ethnic identities. One of its central concepts is halakha, meaning the walk or path sometimes translated as law, which guides religious practice and belief and many aspects of daily life. Even though the beliefs and traditions of Judaism are found in the ancient world, ancient Jews saw Jewish identity as being about an ethnic or national identity and did not entail a compulsory belief system or regulated rituals. Even in the 1st century CE, Josephus had used the Greek term ioudaismos, which some translate as Judaism today, even though he used it as an ethnic term, not one linked to modern abstract concepts of religion as a set of beliefs. It was in the 19th century that Jews began to see their ancestral culture as a religion analogous to Christianity. The Greek word threskeia, which was used by Greek writers such as Herodotus and Josephus, is found in the New Testament. Threskeia is sometimes translated as religion in todays translations, however, the term was understood as worship well into the medieval period. In the Quran, the Arabic word din is often translated as religion in modern translations, but up to the mid-1600s translators expressed din as law.

The Sanskrit word dharma, sometimes translated as religion, also means law. Throughout classical South Asia, the study of law consisted of concepts such as penance through piety and ceremonial as well as practical traditions. Medieval Japan at first had a similar union between imperial law and universal or Buddha law, but these later became independent sources of power.

Throughout the Americas, Native Americans never had a concept of "religion" and any suggestion otherwise is a colonial imposition by Christians.

Though traditions, sacred texts, and practices have existed throughout time, most cultures did not align with Western conceptions of religion since they did not separate everyday life from the sacred. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the terms Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, Confucianism, and world religions first entered the English language. No one self-identified as a Hindu or Buddhist or other similar terms before the 1800s. "Hindu" has historically been used as a geographical, cultural, and later religious identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. Throughout its long history, Japan had no concept of religion since there was no corresponding Japanese word, nor anything close to its meaning, but when American warships appeared off the coast of Japan in 1853 and forced the Japanese government to sign treaties demanding, among other things, freedom of religion, the country had to contend with this Western idea.

According to the philologist Max Muller in the 19th century, the root of the English word religion, the Latin religio, was originally used to mean only reverence for God or the gods, careful pondering of divine things, piety which Cicero further derived to mean diligence. Max Muller characterized many other cultures around the world, including Egypt, Persia, and India, as having a similar power structure at this point in history. What is called ancient religion today, they would have only called law.

                                     

2.1. Definition Modern Western

Religion is a modern Western concept. Parallel concepts are not found in many current and past cultures; there is no equivalent term for religion in many languages. Scholars have found it difficult to develop a consistent definition, with some giving up on the possibility of a definition. Others argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply it to non-Western cultures.

An increasing number of scholars have expressed reservations about ever defining the essence of religion. They observe that the way we use the concept today is a particularly modern construct that would not have been understood through much of history and in many cultures outside the West or even in the West until after the Peace of Westphalia. The MacMillan Encyclopedia of Religions states:

The very attempt to define religion, to find some distinctive or possibly unique essence or set of qualities that distinguish the religious from the remainder of human life, is primarily a Western concern. The attempt is a natural consequence of the Western speculative, intellectualistic, and scientific disposition. It is also the product of the dominant Western religious mode, what is called the Judeo-Christian climate or, more accurately, the theistic inheritance from Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The theistic form of belief in this tradition, even when downgraded culturally, is formative of the dichotomous Western view of religion. That is, the basic structure of theism is essentially a distinction between a transcendent deity and all else, between the creator and his creation, between God and man.

The anthropologist Clifford Geertz defined religion as a

toward some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life. When more or less distinct patterns of behavior are built around this depth dimension in a culture, this structure constitutes religion in its historically recognizable form. Religion is the organization of life around the depth dimensions of experience - varied in form, completeness, and clarity in accordance with the environing culture.

                                     

2.2. Definition Classical

Friedrich Schleiermacher in the late 18th century defined religion das schlechthinnige Abhangigkeitsgefuhl, commonly translated as "the feeling of absolute dependence".

His contemporary Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel disagreed thoroughly, defining religion as "the Divine Spirit becoming conscious of Himself through the finite spirit."

Edward Burnett Tylor defined religion in 1871 as "the belief in spiritual beings". He argued that narrowing the definition to mean the belief in a supreme deity or judgment after death or idolatry and so on, would exclude many peoples from the category of religious, and thus "has the fault of identifying religion rather with particular developments than with the deeper motive which underlies them". He also argued that the belief in spiritual beings exists in all known societies.

In his book The Varieties of Religious Experience, the psychologist William James defined religion as "the feelings, acts, and experiences of individual men in their solitude, so far as they apprehend themselves to stand in relation to whatever they may consider the divine". By the term divine James meant "any object that is god like, whether it be a concrete deity or not" to which the individual feels impelled to respond with solemnity and gravity.

The sociologist Emile Durkheim, in his seminal book The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, defined religion as a "unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things". By sacred things he meant things "set apart and forbidden - beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them". Sacred things are not, however, limited to gods or spirits. On the contrary, a sacred thing can be "a rock, a tree, a spring, a pebble, a piece of wood, a house, in a word, anything can be sacred". Religious beliefs, myths, dogmas and legends are the representations that express the nature of these sacred things, and the virtues and powers which are attributed to them.

Echoes of James and Durkheims definitions are to be found in the writings of, for example, Frederick Ferre who defined religion as "ones way of valuing most comprehensively and intensively". Similarly, for the theologian Paul Tillich, faith is "the state of being ultimately concerned", which "is itself religion. Religion is the substance, the ground, and the depth of mans spiritual life."

When religion is seen in terms of sacred, divine, intensive valuing, or ultimate concern, then it is possible to understand why scientific findings and philosophical criticisms e.g., those made by Richard Dawkins do not necessarily disturb its adherents.



                                     

3.1. Aspects Beliefs

Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. The interplay between faith and reason, and their use as perceived support for religious beliefs, have been a subject of interest to philosophers and theologians.

                                     

3.2. Aspects Mythology

The word myth has several meanings.

  • A person or thing having only an imaginary or unverifiable existence; or
  • A metaphor for the spiritual potentiality in the human being.
  • A traditional story of ostensibly historical events that serves to unfold part of the world view of a people or explain a practice, belief, or natural phenomenon;

Ancient polytheistic religions, such as those of Greece, Rome, and Scandinavia, are usually categorized under the heading of mythology. Religions of pre-industrial peoples, or cultures in development, are similarly called myths in the anthropology of religion. The term myth can be used pejoratively by both religious and non-religious people. By defining another persons religious stories and beliefs as mythology, one implies that they are less real or true than ones own religious stories and beliefs. Joseph Campbell remarked, "Mythology is often thought of as other peoples religions, and religion can be defined as mis-interpreted mythology."

In sociology, however, the term myth has a non-pejorative meaning. There, myth is defined as a story that is important for the group whether or not it is objectively or provably true. Examples include the resurrection of their real-life founder Jesus, which, to Christians, explains the means by which they are freed from sin, is symbolic of the power of life over death, and is also said to be a historical event. But from a mythological outlook, whether or not the event actually occurred is unimportant. Instead, the symbolism of the death of an old life and the start of a new life is what is most significant. Religious believers may or may not accept such symbolic interpretations.

                                     

3.3. Aspects Practices

The practices of a religion may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, religious music, religious art, sacred dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture.

                                     

3.4. Aspects Social organisation

Religions have a societal basis, either as a living tradition which is carried by lay participants, or with an organized clergy, and a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership.

                                     

4. Academic study

A number of disciplines study the phenomenon of religion: theology, comparative religion, history of religion, evolutionary origin of religions, anthropology of religion, psychology of religion including neuroscience of religion and evolutionary psychology of religion, law and religion, and sociology of religion.

Daniel L. Pals mentions eight classical theories of religion, focusing on various aspects of religion: animism and magic, by E.B. Tylor and J.G. Frazer; the psycho-analytic approach of Sigmund Freud; and further Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Mircea Eliade, E.E. Evans-Pritchard, and Clifford Geertz.

Michael Stausberg gives an overview of contemporary theories of religion, including cognitive and biological approaches.

                                     

4.1. Academic study Theories

Sociological and anthropological theories of religion generally attempt to explain the origin and function of religion. These theories define what they present as universal characteristics of religious belief and practice.

                                     

4.2. Academic study Origins and development

The origin of religion is uncertain. There are a number of theories regarding the subsequent origins of religious practices.

According to anthropologists John Monaghan and Peter Just, "Many of the great world religions appear to have begun as revitalization movements of some sort, as the vision of a charismatic prophet fires the imaginations of people seeking a more comprehensive answer to their problems than they feel is provided by everyday beliefs. Charismatic individuals have emerged at many times and places in the world. It seems that the key to long-term success - and many movements come and go with little long-term effect - has relatively little to do with the prophets, who appear with surprising regularity, but more to do with the development of a group of supporters who are able to institutionalize the movement."

The development of religion has taken different forms in different cultures. Some religions place an emphasis on belief, while others emphasize practice. Some religions focus on the subjective experience of the religious individual, while others consider the activities of the religious community to be most important. Some religions claim to be universal, believing their laws and cosmology to be binding for everyone, while others are intended to be practiced only by a closely defined or localized group. In many places, religion has been associated with public institutions such as education, hospitals, the family, government, and political hierarchies.

Anthropologists John Monoghan and Peter Just state that, "it seems apparent that one thing religion or belief helps us do is deal with problems of human life that are significant, persistent, and intolerable. One important way in which religious beliefs accomplish this is by providing a set of ideas about how and why the world is put together that allows people to accommodate anxieties and deal with misfortune."



                                     

4.3. Academic study Cultural system

While religion is difficult to define, one standard model of religion, used in religious studies courses, was proposed by Clifford Geertz, who simply called it a "cultural system". A critique of Geertzs model by Talal Asad categorized religion as "an anthropological category". Richard Niebuhrs 1894–1962 five-fold classification of the relationship between Christ and culture, however, indicates that religion and culture can be seen as two separate systems, though not without some interplay.

                                     

4.4. Academic study Social constructionism

One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings. Among the main proponents of this theory of religion are Daniel Dubuisson, Timothy Fitzgerald, Talal Asad, and Jason Ānanda Josephson. The social constructionists argue that religion is a modern concept that developed from Christianity and was then applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures.

                                     

4.5. Academic study Cognitive science

Cognitive science of religion is the study of religious thought and behavior from the perspective of the cognitive and evolutionary sciences. The field employs methods and theories from a very broad range of disciplines, including: cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, cognitive anthropology, artificial intelligence, cognitive neuroscience, neurobiology, zoology, and ethology. Scholars in this field seek to explain how human minds acquire, generate, and transmit religious thoughts, practices, and schemas by means of ordinary cognitive capacities.

Hallucinations and delusions related to religious content occurs in about 60% of people with schizophrenia. While this number varies across cultures, this had led to theories about a number of influential religious phenomenon and possible relation to psychotic disorders. A number of prophetic experiences are consistent with psychotic symptoms, although retrospective diagnoses are practically impossible. Schizophrenic episodes are also experienced by people who do not have belief in gods.

Religious content is also common in temporal lobe epilepsy, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Atheistic content is also found to be common with temporal lobe epilepsy.



                                     

4.6. Academic study Comparativism

Comparative religion is the branch of the study of religions concerned with the systematic comparison of the doctrines and practices of the worlds religions. In general, the comparative study of religion yields a deeper understanding of the fundamental philosophical concerns of religion such as ethics, metaphysics, and the nature and form of salvation. Studying such material is meant to give one a richer and more sophisticated understanding of human beliefs and practices regarding the sacred, numinous, spiritual and divine.

In the field of comparative religion, a common geographical classification of the main world religions includes Middle Eastern religions including Zoroastrianism and Iranian religions, Indian religions, East Asian religions, African religions, American religions, Oceanic religions, and classical Hellenistic religions.

                                     

5. Classification

In the 19th and 20th centuries, the academic practice of comparative religion divided religious belief into philosophically defined categories called world religions. Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories:

  • world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international religions;
  • new religious movements, which refers to recently developed religions.
  • indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and

Some recent scholarship has argued that not all types of religion are necessarily separated by mutually exclusive philosophies, and furthermore that the utility of ascribing a practice to a certain philosophy, or even calling a given practice religious, rather than cultural, political, or social in nature, is limited. The current state of psychological study about the nature of religiousness suggests that it is better to refer to religion as a largely invariant phenomenon that should be distinguished from cultural norms i.e. religions.

                                     

5.1. Classification Morphological classification

Some scholars classify religions as either universal religions that seek worldwide acceptance and actively look for new converts, or ethnic religions that are identified with a particular ethnic group and do not seek converts. Others reject the distinction, pointing out that all religious practices, whatever their philosophical origin, are ethnic because they come from a particular culture. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Jainism are universal religions while Hinduism and Judaism are ethnic religions.

                                     

5.2. Classification Demographical classification

The five largest religious groups by world population, estimated to account for 5.8 billion people and 84% of the population, are Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism with the relative numbers for Buddhism and Hinduism dependent on the extent of syncretism and traditional folk religion.

A global poll in 2012 surveyed 57 countries and reported that 59% of the worlds population identified as religious, 23% as not religious, 13% as convinced atheists, and also a 9% decrease in identification as religious when compared to the 2005 average from 39 countries. A follow-up poll in 2015 found that 63% of the globe identified as religious, 22% as not religious, and 11% as convinced atheists. On average, women are more religious than men. Some people follow multiple religions or multiple religious principles at the same time, regardless of whether or not the religious principles they follow traditionally allow for syncretism.

                                     

6. Specific religions

Abrahamic

Abrahamic religions are monotheistic religions which believe they descend from Abraham.

Taoism and Confucianism

  • Taoism and Confucianism, as well as Korean, Vietnamese, and Japanese religion influenced by Chinese thought.
                                     

6.1. Specific religions Abrahamic

Abrahamic religions are monotheistic religions which believe they descend from Abraham.

                                     

6.2. Specific religions Judaism

Judaism is the oldest Abrahamic religion, originating in the people of ancient Israel and Judea. The Torah is its foundational text, and is part of the larger text known as the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible. It is supplemented by oral tradition, set down in written form in later texts such as the Midrash and the Talmud. Judaism includes a wide corpus of texts, practices, theological positions, and forms of organization. Within Judaism there are a variety of movements, most of which emerged from Rabbinic Judaism, which holds that God revealed his laws and commandments to Moses on Mount Sinai in the form of both the Written and Oral Torah; historically, this assertion was challenged by various groups. The Jewish people were scattered after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70 CE. Today there are about 13 million Jews, about 40 per cent living in Israel and 40 per cent in the United States. The largest Jewish religious movements are Orthodox Judaism Haredi Judaism and Modern Orthodox Judaism, Conservative Judaism and Reform Judaism.

                                     

6.3. Specific religions Christianity

Christianity is based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth 1st century as presented in the New Testament. The Christian faith is essentially faith in Jesus as the Christ, the Son of God, and as Savior and Lord. Almost all Christians believe in the Trinity, which teaches the unity of Father, Son Jesus Christ, and Holy Spirit as three persons in one Godhead. Most Christians can describe their faith with the Nicene Creed. As the religion of Byzantine Empire in the first millennium and of Western Europe during the time of colonization, Christianity has been propagated throughout the world. The main divisions of Christianity are, according to the number of adherents:

  • Eastern Christianity, which include Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and the Church of the East.
  • The Catholic Church, led by the Bishop of Rome and the bishops worldwide in communion with him, is a communion of 24 Churches sui iuris, including the Latin Church and 23 Eastern Catholic churches, such as the Maronite Catholic Church.
  • Protestantism, separated from the Catholic Church in the 16th-century Protestant Reformation and is split into thousands of denominations. Major branches of Protestantism include Anglicanism, Baptists, Calvinism, Lutheranism, and Methodism, though each of these contain many different denominations or groups.

There are also smaller groups, including:

  • Jehovahs Witnesses, founded in the late 1870s by Charles Taze Russell.
  • Latter-day Saint movement, founded by Joseph Smith in the late 1820s.
  • Restorationism, the belief that Christianity should be restored as opposed to reformed along the lines of what is known about the apostolic early church.
                                     

6.4. Specific religions Islam

Islam is based on the Quran, one of the holy books considered by Muslims to be revealed by God, and on the teachings hadith of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, a major political and religious figure of the 7th century CE. Islam is based on the unity of all religious philosophies and accepts all of the Abrahamic prophets of Judaism, Christianity and other Abrahamic religions before Muhammad. It is the most widely practiced religion of Southeast Asia, North Africa, Western Asia, and Central Asia, while Muslim-majority countries also exist in parts of South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and Southeast Europe. There are also several Islamic republics, including Iran, Pakistan, Mauritania, and Afghanistan.

  • Sunni Islam is the largest denomination within Islam and follows the Quran, the ahadith ar: plural of Hadith which record the sunnah, whilst placing emphasis on the sahabah.
  • Ahmadiyya adherents believe that the awaited Imam Mahdi and the Promised Messiah has arrived, believed to be Mirza Ghulam Ahmad by the Ahmadi.
  • Shia Islam is the second largest denomination of Islam and its adherents believe that Ali succeeded Muhammad and further places emphasis on Muhammads family.
  • There are also Muslim revivalist movements such as Muwahhidism and Salafism.

Other denominations of Islam include Nation of Islam, Ibadi, Sufism, Quranism, Mahdavia, and non-denominational Muslims. Wahhabism is the dominant Muslim schools of thought in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

                                     

6.5. Specific religions Other

Whilst Judaism, Christianity and Islam are commonly seen as the three Abrahamic faiths, there are smaller and newer traditions which lay claim to the designation as well.

For example, the Bahai Faith is a new religious movement that has links to the major Abrahamic religions as well as other religions e.g. of Eastern philosophy. Founded in 19th-century Iran, it teaches the unity of all religious philosophies and accepts all of the prophets of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam as well as additional prophets Buddha, Mahavira, including its founder Bahaullah. It is an offshoot of Babism. One of its divisions is the Orthodox Bahai Faith.

Even smaller regional Abrahamic groups also exist, including Samaritanism primarily in Israel and the West Bank, the Rastafari movement primarily in Jamaica, and Druze primarily in Syria and Lebanon.

                                     

6.6. Specific religions Taoism and Confucianism

  • Taoism and Confucianism, as well as Korean, Vietnamese, and Japanese religion influenced by Chinese thought.
                                     

6.7. Specific religions Folk religion

  • Other folk and new religions of East Asia and Southeast Asia such as Korean shamanism, Chondogyo, and Jeung San Do in Korea; Shinto, Shugendo, Ryukyuan religion, and Japanese new religions in Japan; Satsana Phi in Laos; Cao Dài, Hoa Hảo, and Vietnamese folk religion in Vietnam.
  • Chinese folk religion: the indigenous religions of the Han Chinese, or, by metonymy, of all the populations of the Chinese cultural sphere. It includes the syncretism of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism, Wuism, as well as many new religious movements such as Chen Tao, Falun Gong and Yiguandao.
                                     

6.8. Specific religions Dharmic Indian

Indian religions are practiced or were founded in the Indian subcontinent. They are sometimes classified as the dharmic religions, as they all feature dharma, the specific law of reality and duties expected according to the religion.

                                     

6.9. Specific religions Hinduism

  • Hinduism is preferentially self-designated by the term Vaidika Dharma. It is a synecdoche describing the similar philosophies of Vaishnavism, Shaivism, and related groups practiced or founded in the Indian subcontinent. Concepts most of them share in common include karma, caste, reincarnation, mantras, yantras, and darsana. Hinduism is one of the most ancient of still-active religions, with origins perhaps as far back as prehistoric times. Hinduism is not a monolithic religion but a religious category containing dozens of separate philosophies amalgamated as Sanātana Dharma, which is the name by which Hinduism has been known throughout history by its followers.
                                     

6.10. Specific religions Jainism

  • Shwetambara Jainism or white-clad is mainly practiced in Western India. Their holy books are Jain Agamas, written by their Prophet Sthulibhadra.
  • Digambara Jainism or sky-clad is mainly practiced in South India. Their holy books are Pravachanasara and Samayasara written by their Prophets Kundakunda and Amritchandra as their original canon is lost.
  • Jainism, taught primarily by Rishabhanatha the founder of ahimsa is an ancient Indian religion that prescribes a path of non-violence, truth and anekantavada for all forms of living beings in this universe; which helps them to eliminate all the Karmas, and hence to attain freedom from the cycle of birth and death samsāra, that is, achieving nirvana. Jains are found mostly in India. According to Dundas, outside of the Jain tradition, historians date the Mahavira as about contemporaneous with the Buddha in the 5th-century BCE, and accordingly the historical Parshvanatha, based on the c. 250-year gap, is placed in 8th or 7th century BCE.
                                     

6.11. Specific religions Buddhism

  • Vajrayana Buddhism first appeared in India in the 3rd century CE. It is currently most prominent in the Himalaya regions and extends across all of Asia cf. Mikkyō.
  • Two notable new Buddhist sects are Hoa Hảo and the Navayana Dalit Buddhist movement, which were developed separately in the 20th century.
  • Theravada Buddhism, which is practiced mainly in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia alongside folk religion, shares some characteristics of Indian religions. It is based in a large collection of texts called the Pali Canon.
  • Buddhism was founded by Siddhartha Gautama in the 6th century BCE. Buddhists generally agree that Gotama aimed to help sentient beings end their suffering dukkha by understanding the true nature of phenomena, thereby escaping the cycle of suffering and rebirth samsāra, that is, achieving nirvana.
  • Mahayana Buddhism or the Great Vehicle under which are a multitude of doctrines that became prominent in China and are still relevant in Vietnam, Korea, Japan and to a lesser extent in Europe and the United States. Mahayana Buddhism includes such disparate teachings as Zen, Pure Land, and Soka Gakkai.
                                     

6.12. Specific religions Sikhism

  • Sikhism is a panentheistic religion founded on the teachings of Guru Nanak and ten successive Sikh gurus in 15th-century Punjab. It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world, with approximately 30 million Sikhs. Sikhs are expected to embody the qualities of a Sant-Sipāhī - a saint-soldier, have control over ones internal vices and be able to be constantly immersed in virtues clarified in the Guru Granth Sahib. The principal beliefs of Sikhi are faith in Waheguru - represented by the phrase ik ōankār, meaning one God, who prevails in everything, along with a praxis in which the Sikh is enjoined to engage in social reform through the pursuit of justice for all human beings.
                                     

6.13. Specific religions Indigenous and folk

Indigenous religions or folk religions refers to a broad category of traditional religions that can be characterised by shamanism, animism and ancestor worship, where traditional means "indigenous, that which is aboriginal or foundational, handed down from generation to generation…". These are religions that are closely associated with a particular group of people, ethnicity or tribe; they often have no formal creeds or sacred texts. Some faiths are syncretic, fusing diverse religious beliefs and practices.

  • Folk religions of the Americas: Native American religions
  • Australian Aboriginal religions.

Folk religions are often omitted as a category in surveys even in countries where they are widely practiced, e.g. in China.

                                     

6.14. Specific religions Traditional African

African traditional religion encompasses the traditional religious beliefs of people in Africa. In West Africa, these religions include the Akan religion, Dahomey Fon mythology, Efik mythology, Odinani, Serer religion A ƭat Roog, and Yoruba religion, while Bushongo mythology, Mbuti Pygmy mythology, Lugbara mythology, Dinka religion, and Lotuko mythology come from central Africa. Southern African traditions include Akamba mythology, Masai mythology, Malagasy mythology, San religion, Lozi mythology, Tumbuka mythology, and Zulu mythology. Bantu mythology is found throughout central, southeast, and southern Africa. In north Africa, these traditions include Berber and ancient Egyptian.

There are also notable African diasporic religions practiced in the Americas, such as Santeria, Candomble, Vodun, Lucumi, Umbanda, and Macumba.

                                     

6.15. Specific religions Iranian

Iranian religions are ancient religions whose roots predate the Islamization of Greater Iran. Nowadays these religions are practiced only by minorities.

Zoroastrianism is based on the teachings of prophet Zoroaster in the 6th century BCE. Zoroastrians worship the creator Ahura Mazda. In Zoroastrianism, good and evil have distinct sources, with evil trying to destroy the creation of Mazda, and good trying to sustain it.

Mandaeism is a monotheistic religion with a strongly dualistic worldview. Mandaeans are sometime labeled as the Last Gnostics.

Kurdish religions include the traditional beliefs of the Yazidi, Alevi, and Ahl-e Haqq. Sometimes these are labeled Yazdanism.

                                     

6.16. Specific religions New religious movements

  • Shinshūkyō is a general category for a wide variety of religious movements founded in Japan since the 19th century. These movements share almost nothing in common except the place of their founding. The largest religious movements centered in Japan include Soka Gakkai, Tenrikyo, and Seicho-No-Ie among hundreds of smaller groups.
  • Eckankar is a pantheistic religion with the purpose of making God an everyday reality in ones life.
  • Scientology teaches that people are immortal beings who have forgotten their true nature. Its method of spiritual rehabilitation is a type of counseling known as auditing, in which practitioners aim to consciously re-experience and understand painful or traumatic events and decisions in their past in order to free themselves of their limiting effects.
  • Unitarian Universalism is a religion characterized by support for a free and responsible search for truth and meaning, and has no accepted creed or theology.
  • The Bahai Faith teaches the unity of all religious philosophies.
  • Some forms of parody religion or fiction-based religion like Jediism, Pastafarianism, Dudeism, "Tolkien religion", and others often develop their own writings, traditions, and cultural expressions, and end up behaving like traditional religions.
  • Satanism is a broad category of religions that, for example, worship Satan as a deity Theistic Satanism or use Satan as a symbol of carnality and earthly values LaVeyan Satanism and The Satanic Temple.
  • Noahidism is a monotheistic ideology based on the Seven Laws of Noah, and on their traditional interpretations within Rabbinic Judaism.
  • Raelism is a new religious movement founded in 1974 teaching that humans were created by aliens. It is numerically the worlds largest UFO religion.
  • There are various Neopagan movements that attempt to reconstruct or revive ancient pagan practices. These include Heathenry, Hellenism, and Kemeticism.
  • Druidry is a religion promoting harmony with nature, and drawing on the practices of the druids.
  • Wicca is a neo-pagan religion first popularised in 1954 by British civil servant Gerald Gardner, involving the worship of a God and Goddess.
  • Hindu reform movements, such as Ayyavazhi, Swaminarayan Faith and Ananda Marga, are examples of new religious movements within Indian religions.
  • Cao Dài is a syncretistic, monotheistic religion, established in Vietnam in 1926.

Sociological classifications of religious movements suggest that within any given religious group, a community can resemble various types of structures, including churches, denominations, sects, cults, and institutions.

                                     

7. Related aspects

Animal sacrifice

Done by some but not all religions, animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal to appease or maintain favour with a deity. It has been banned in India.

                                     

7.1. Related aspects Law

The study of law and religion is a relatively new field, with several thousand scholars involved in law schools, and academic departments including political science, religion, and history since 1980. Scholars in the field are not only focused on strictly legal issues about religious freedom or non-establishment, but also study religions as they are qualified through judicial discourses or legal understanding of religious phenomena. Exponents look at canon law, natural law, and state law, often in a comparative perspective. Specialists have explored themes in Western history regarding Christianity and justice and mercy, rule and equity, and discipline and love. Common topics of interest include marriage and the family and human rights. Outside of Christianity, scholars have looked at law and religion links in the Muslim Middle East and pagan Rome.

Studies have focused on secularization. In particular, the issue of wearing religious symbols in public, such as headscarves that are banned in French schools, have received scholarly attention in the context of human rights and feminism.

                                     

7.2. Related aspects Science

Science acknowledges reason, empiricism, and evidence; and religions include revelation, faith and sacredness whilst also acknowledging philosophical and metaphysical explanations with regard to the study of the universe. Both science and religion are not monolithic, timeless, or static because both are complex social and cultural endeavors that have changed through time across languages and cultures.

The concepts of science and religion are a recent invention: the term religion emerged in the 17th century in the midst of colonization and globalization and the Protestant Reformation. The term science emerged in the 19th century out of natural philosophy in the midst of attempts to narrowly define those who studied nature natural science, and the phrase religion and science emerged in the 19th century due to the reification of both concepts. It was in the 19th century that the terms Buddhism, Hinduism, Taoism, and Confucianism first emerged. In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin roots of both science scientia and religion religio were understood as inner qualities of the individual or virtues, never as doctrines, practices, or actual sources of knowledge.

In general the scientific method gains knowledge by testing hypotheses to develop theories through elucidation of facts or evaluation by experiments and thus only answers cosmological questions about the universe that can be observed and measured. It develops theories of the world which best fit physically observed evidence. All scientific knowledge is subject to later refinement, or even rejection, in the face of additional evidence. Scientific theories that have an overwhelming preponderance of favorable evidence are often treated as de facto verities in general parlance, such as the theories of general relativity and natural selection to explain respectively the mechanisms of gravity and evolution.

Religion does not have a method per se partly because religions emerge through time from diverse cultures and it is an attempt to find meaning in the world, and to explain humanitys place in it and relationship to it and to any posited entities. In terms of Christian theology and ultimate truths, people rely on reason, experience, scripture, and tradition to test and gauge what they experience and what they should believe. Furthermore, religious models, understanding, and metaphors are also revisable, as are scientific models.

Regarding religion and science, Albert Einstein states 1940: "For science can only ascertain what is, but not what should be, and outside of its domain value judgments of all kinds remain necessary. Religion, on the other hand, deals only with evaluations of human thought and action; it cannot justifiably speak of facts and relationships between facts…Now, even though the realms of religion and science in themselves are clearly marked off from each other, nevertheless there exist between the two strong reciprocal relationships and dependencies. Though religion may be that which determine the goals, it has, nevertheless, learned from science, in the broadest sense, what means will contribute to the attainment of the goals it has set up."

                                     

7.3. Related aspects Morality

Many religions have value frameworks regarding personal behavior meant to guide adherents in determining between right and wrong. These include the Triple Jems of Jainism, Judaisms Halacha, Islams Sharia, Catholicisms Canon Law, Buddhisms Eightfold Path, and Zoroastrianisms good thoughts, good words, and good deeds concept, among others.

Religion and morality are not synonymous. While it is "an almost automatic assumption." in Christianity, morality can have a secular basis.

The study of religion and morality can be contentious due to ethnocentric views on morality, failure to distinguish between in group and out group altruism, and inconsistent definitions of religiosity.

                                     

7.4. Related aspects Impact

Religion has had a significant impact on the political system in many countries. Notably, most Muslim-majority countries adopt various aspects of sharia, the Islamic law. Some countries even define themselves in religious terms, such as The Islamic Republic of Iran. The sharia thus affects up to 23% of the global population, or 1.57 billion people who are Muslims. However, religion also affects political decisions in many western countries. For instance, in the United States, 51% of voters would be less likely to vote for a presidential candidate who did not believe in God, and only 6% more likely. Christians make up 92% of members of the US Congress, compared with 71% of the general public as of 2014. At the same time, while 23% of U.S. adults are religiously unaffiliated, only one member of Congress Kyrsten Sinema, D-Arizona, or 0.2% of that body, claims no religious affiliation. In most European countries, however, religion has a much smaller influence on politics although it used to be much more important. For instance, same-sex marriage and abortion were illegal in many European countries until recently, following Christian usually Catholic doctrine. Several European leaders are atheists e.g. France’s former president Francois Hollande or Greeces prime minister Alexis Tsipras. In Asia, the role of religion differs widely between countries. For instance, India is still one of the most religious countries and religion still has a strong impact on politics, given that Hindu nationalists have been targeting minorities like the Muslims and the Christians, who historically belonged to the lower castes. By contrast, countries such as China or Japan are largely secular and thus religion has a much smaller impact on politics.

                                     

7.5. Related aspects Secularism

Secularization is the transformation of the politics of a society from close identification with a particular religions values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions. The purpose of this is frequently modernization or protection of the populations religious diversity.

                                     

7.6. Related aspects Economics

One study has found there is a negative correlation between self-defined religiosity and the wealth of nations. In other words, the richer a nation is, the less likely its inhabitants to call themselves religious, whatever this word means to them Many people identify themselves as part of a religion not irreligion but do not self-identify as religious).

Sociologist and political economist Max Weber has argued that Protestant Christian countries are wealthier because of their Protestant work ethic.

According to a study from 2015, Christians hold the largest amount of wealth 55% of the total world wealth, followed by Muslims 5.8%, Hindus 3.3% and Jews 1.1%. According to the same study it was found that adherents under the classification Irreligion or other religions hold about 34.8% of the total global wealth.

                                     

7.7. Related aspects Violence

Critics like Hector Avalos Regina Schwartz, Christopher Hitchens and Richard Dawkins have argued that religions are inherently violent and harmful to society by using violence to promote their goals, in ways that are endorsed and exploited by their leaders.

Anthropologist Jack David Eller asserts that religion is not inherently violent, arguing "religion and violence are clearly compatible, but they are not identical." He asserts that "violence is neither essential to nor exclusive to religion" and that "virtually every form of religious violence has its nonreligious corollary."

                                     

7.8. Related aspects Animal sacrifice

Done by some but not all religions, animal sacrifice is the ritual killing and offering of an animal to appease or maintain favour with a deity. It has been banned in India.

                                     

7.9. Related aspects Superstition

Greek and Roman pagans, who saw their relations with the gods in political and social terms, scorned the man who constantly trembled with fear at the thought of the gods deisidaimonia, as a slave might fear a cruel and capricious master. The Romans called such fear of the gods superstitio. Ancient Greek historian Polybius described superstition in Ancient Rome as an instrumentum regni, an instrument of maintaining the cohesion of the Empire.

Superstition has been described as the non rational establishment of cause and effect. Religion is more complex and is often composed of social institutions and has a moral aspect. Some religions may include superstitions or make use of magical thinking. Adherents of one religion sometimes think of other religions as superstition. Some atheists, deists, and skeptics regard religious belief as superstition.

The Roman Catholic Church considers superstition to be sinful in the sense that it denotes a lack of trust in the divine providence of God and, as such, is a violation of the first of the Ten Commandments. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that superstition "in some sense represents a perverse excess of religion" para. #2110. "Superstition," it says, "is a deviation of religious feeling and of the practices this feeling imposes. It can even affect the worship we offer the true God, e.g., when one attributes an importance in some way magical to certain practices otherwise lawful or necessary. To attribute the efficacy of prayers or of sacramental signs to their mere external performance, apart from the interior dispositions that they demand is to fall into superstition. Cf. Matthew 23:16–22" para. #2111

                                     

7.10. Related aspects Agnosticism and atheism

The terms atheist lack of belief in any gods and agnostic belief in the unknowability of the existence of gods, though specifically contrary to theistic religious teachings, do not by definition mean the opposite of religious. There are religions, in fact, that classify some of their followers as agnostic, atheistic, or nontheistic. The true opposite of religious is the word irreligious. Irreligion describes an absence of any religion; antireligion describes an active opposition or aversion toward religions in general.

                                     

7.11. Related aspects Interfaith cooperation

Because religion continues to be recognized in Western thought as a universal impulse, many religious practitioners have aimed to band together in interfaith dialogue, cooperation, and religious peacebuilding. The first major dialogue was the Parliament of the Worlds Religions at the 1893 Chicago Worlds Fair, which affirmed universal values and recognition of the diversity of practices among different cultures. The 20th century has been especially fruitful in use of interfaith dialogue as a means of solving ethnic, political, or even religious conflict, with Christian–Jewish reconciliation representing a complete reverse in the attitudes of many Christian communities towards Jews.

Recent interfaith initiatives include A Common Word, launched in 2007 and focused on bringing Muslim and Christian leaders together, the "C1 World Dialogue", the Common Ground initiative between Islam and Buddhism, and a United Nations sponsored "World Interfaith Harmony Week".

                                     

7.12. Related aspects Culture

Culture and religion have usually been seen as closely related. Paul Tillich looked at religion as the soul of culture and culture as the form or framework of religion. In his own words:

Religion as ultimate concern is the meaning-giving substance of culture, and culture is the totality of forms in which the basic concern of religion expresses itself. In abbreviation: religion is the substance of culture, culture is the form of religion. Such a consideration definitely prevents the establishment of a dualism of religion and culture. Every religious act, not only in organized religion, but also in the most intimate movement of the soul, is culturally formed.

Ernst Troeltsch, similarly, looked at culture as the soil of religion and thought that, therefore, transplanting a religion from its original culture to a foreign culture would actually kill it in the same manner that transplanting a plant from its natural soil to an alien soil would kill it. However, there have been many attempts in the modern pluralistic situation to distinguish culture from religion. Domenic Marbaniang has argued that elements grounded on beliefs of a metaphysical nature religious are distinct from elements grounded on nature and the natural cultural. For instance, language with its grammar is a cultural element while sacralization of language in which a particular religious scripture is written is more often a religious practice. The same applies to music and the arts.

                                     
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  • Iranian religions Indian religions East Asian religions African religions American religions Oceanic religions and classical Hellenistic religions Ibn
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  • not claim to be exclusive, and elements of each enrich popular or folk religion The emperors of China claimed the Mandate of Heaven and participated in
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  • folk religion simplified Chinese: 中国民间信仰 traditional Chinese: 中國民間信仰 pinyin: Zhōngguo minjiān xìnyǎng is the most widespread form of religion in China
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  • You may also be looking for a 1916 book by Max Weber, The Religion of India Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and
  • Organized religion or organised religion - see spelling differences also known as institutional religion is religion in which belief systems and rituals
  • Native American religions are the spiritual practices of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. This article focuses on Native North Americans. Traditional
  • A secular religion is a communal belief system that often rejects or neglects the metaphysical aspects of the supernatural, commonly associated with traditional
  • and folkloristics, folk religion popular religion or vernacular religion comprises various forms and expressions of religion that are distinct from the
  • Religion in Australia is diverse. Section 116 of the Constitution of Australia of 1901 prohibits the Commonwealth government from establishing a church
  • A parody religion or mock religion is a belief system that challenges the spiritual convictions of others, often through humor, satire, or burlesque literary
  • The study of women and religion typically examines the role of women within particular religious faiths, and religious doctrines relating to gender, gender
  • Afro - American religion also known as African diasporic religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas in various nations

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Translation

Recovering from Religion.

Religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence. Many religions have narratives,. The Science of Religion edX. Recovering from Religion provides support and resources to people coping with doubt, seeking answers about religion, and living without faith. Programs we. Religion in the Ancient World Ancient History Encyclopedia. Learn more about Washingtons views on religion and his religious practices. Worlds largest religion by population is still Christianity Pew. Religious discrimination involves treating a person an applicant or employee unfavorably because of his or her religious beliefs. The law protects not only. RELIGION meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary. The Bill of Rights guarantees that the government can never deprive people in the U.S. of certain fundamental rights including the right to freedom of religion and. RealClearReligion Opinion, News, Analysis, Video. 5 Jun 2019 In a liberal arts college like Carleton, religion is understood as a field of inquiry within the humanities and social sciences. The historic traditions. Religion & Politics. 27 Aug 2018 Faith is on the rise and 84% of the global population identifies with a religious group. What does it mean for the future?.


Religion & Public Life Pew Research Center.

Weird Religion A Podcast. A podcast for people who know religion is weird, but love it anyway. Home. GALLERY. The Weird Religion album cover. Artwork by. Spirituality. Meeting of Russian presidential advisors concerning religion. October 16 Moscow patriarchate disputes American view of religious liberty. September 28. Religion Latest research and news Nature. 23 Oct 2019 religion definition: 1. the belief in and worship of a god or gods, or any such system of belief and worship: 2. an…. Learn more. Religion La Croix International. People look to their faith as a source of guidance and inspiration – and LGBTQ people and our family and friends are no different. The HRC Religion and Faith.


How the Internet Is Taking Away Americas Religion MIT.

USCIRFs Religious Prisoner of Conscience Project highlights individuals their freedom of religion or belief, as well as the dedicated advocacy of USCIRF. Science Says: Religion Is Good For Your Health Forbes. Religion is a social cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that. History of religion. The material on this site may not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with the prior written permission of Religion News. Religion News Service: Homepage. Pieter van der Horst. Idea. Rituals and celebrations. Holy relics and celebrity mementos put heaven within reach. Emma J Wells. Essay. Religion. Zen terror. Inside Artificial Intelligences First Church WIRED. Religion is a word which refers to approaches to human spirituality which usually encompass a set of narratives, symbols, beliefs and practices, often with a supernatural or transcendent quality, which give meaning and guidance to the practitioners experiences of life through reference to a higher power or truth. Yoga As a Religion? A Discussion of Yoga Philosophy Yoga. Study of how religious beliefs impact environmental values and attitudes to CCS. Three focus groups held with Muslim, Christian and Secular participants.





Viewing Subject: Religion JSTOR.

Cultural and Religious Diversity in Hospice and Palliative Care: A Qualitative Cross Country Comparative Analysis of the Challenges of Health Care Pr. 18 Major World Religions Study Starters The Quad Magazine. Religion definition is the state of a religious. How to use religion in a sentence. Religion for the Nonreligious Wait But Why. 23 Dec 2016 PRINCETON, N.J. - Religion remains an integral part of most Americans lives, but Gallups ongoing research shows how this has changed. Explore: Religion & Faith Human Rights Campaign. Share of Americans With No Religious Affiliation Is Rising Significantly, New Data Shows. Athiest, agnostic and non affiliated adults have risen to 26%, up 9%. Bill Barr Gets Religion WSJ. 15 Nov 2017 Anthony Levandowski, the engineer at the heart of the Uber Google lawsuit, is serious about his artificial intelligence religion.


Religion Wiktionary.

6 Sep 2017 A seismic survey of American religious and denominational identity the largest of its kind ever conducted chronicles changes in the US. The Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology. Both previously held leadership roles in the Jesuits Oregon Province while it sent Jesuits accused of sexual abuse to live in a home on campus. Religion. Religion Dictionary Teaching Tools The Learning Center The. The religion area of OHO provides new essays on critical topics and emerging issues in the study of religion, complementing hundreds of essays on Christianity,. International Center for Religion and Diplomacy. The Pew Research Centers Forum on Religion & Public Life seeks to promote a deeper understanding of issues at the intersection of religion and public affairs. Why Are There No New Major Religions? The Atlantic. 3 days ago Our articles on religion are interesting, well explained reports and more thoughtful analytical pieces from a range of authors who are not only.


Religion Teaching Tolerance.

He Catholic Church was the only church in Europe during the Middle Ages, and it had its own laws and large coffers. Church leaders such as bishops and. Religion Temple University. Whether you go to a synagogue, a church, or a mosque, religion has always been a lifeline for questioning people. Tim and Moby discuss religions and the. Religion Aeon. The Religion Communicators Council RCC is one of over 100 cooperating organizations participating in the once a decade Religion Communication. Religion Rational. Study Religion at one of the earliest religion departments established at a public or state university. View our academic offerings, and earn a BA, MA,.


Religion Definition & List of Religions google - wiki.info.

20 May 2019 Losing Religion and Finding Ecstasy in Houston. Christianity formed my deepest instincts, and I have been walking away from it for half my life. Religion ScienceDaily. 17 Jan 2017 The relationship between religion and science is the subject of continued debate in philosophy and theology. To what extent are religion and. Religion Definition of Religion by Merriam Webster. A collection of TED Talks and more on the topic of Religion. RUSSIA RELIGION NEWS RECENT NEWS ITEMS Stetson University. The friction between science and religion goes back centuries. While the conflict often lies in beliefs and research, the common ground between the two is. Department of Religion Home. While not itself a religious organization, ICRD builds the skills, capacity, and ranks of women and men peacebuilders of all faiths to address the root causes of.





The Number of Americans with No Religious Affiliation Is Rising.

Explore 1000 Religion Quotes by authors including Mahatma Gandhi, Helen Keller, and Kanye West at BrainyQuote. News about religion on Twitter. Archiv fur Religionspsychologie Archive for the Psychology of Religion, 1914 2015. Religion and American Culture: A Journal of Interpretation, 1991 2015. Religion & Ethics NewsWeekly PBS. 1 Apr 2018 In recent years much has been written about the rise of the nones people who check the box for none on surveys of religious affiliation. Religion Online. News about Religion and Belief, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times.


Religion New World Encyclopedia.

11 Oct 2018 As religious observance in China grows, the Chinese Communist Party continues to toughen oversight, increase religious persecution, and. Religion, Brain & Behavior Taylor & Francis Online. Religion, by and large, represents societys attempts to answer those questions. While it isnt always able to achieve that goal many religious claims can be. Religion Time. 6 Aug 2017 The story of one imprisoned prophet illustrates the difficulties of getting a baby religion off the ground. Religion Communicators Council: Home. Thoughts on Undergraduate Research from a Religion Major by Shanon FitzGerald Jonathan Gold appointed Director of the Center for the Study of Religion.


Freedom of religion or belief OSCE.

Meaning of Religion. QUESTION: What is the meaning of religion? ANSWER: Religion is a fundamental set of beliefs and practices generally agreed upon by a. Religion and the Founding of the American Republic Exhibitions. The Forum on Religion and Ecology is the largest international multireligious project of its kind. With its conferences, publications, and website it is engaged in. Religion pedia. Master of Divinity with Concentrations in Sexuality and Religion, Chaplaincy, Joint Master of Divinity Master of Arts Pacific School of Religion Graduate.


Antiracism, Our Flawed New Religion The Daily Beast.

News reporting and insight for Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, and faith around the world. Religion why faith is becoming more and more popular News The. What is religion? Are we wired to believe? Does science have the answers? Join us on a journey to the origins of religion and spirituality. Freedom of Religion HISTORY. Chained Children Rescued From Nigerian Religious School Zimbabwe Churches Propose Suspension Of Elections For Seven Years Deported American. Meaning of Religion All About Religion. Roku provides the simplest way to stream entertainment to your TV. On your terms. With thousands of available channels to choose from. The Institute on Religion and Democracy: Home. 2 Sep 2015 Religion is a multivalent force, not reducible to good religion and bad religion. Still, we must take seriously those instances when actors seek to.





Freedom of Religion or Belief Human Rights Library.

This exhibition demonstrates that many of the colonies that in 1776 became the United States of America were settled by men and women of deep religious. Definition of religion. Explore the history, practices, and doctrines of the worlds major religions on Learn Religions. Find guides to Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism,. URI Kids: World Religions URI. 26 Mar 2019 A religion is a systematic set of beliefs, rituals and codifications of behaviour that revolves around a particular groups worldview views about. Religion Definition of Religion at google - wiki.info. The Hindu version has come to symbolize the religious observance, but the occasion can have very different interpretations among various communities.


Which country has no official religion.

Welcome Philosophy & Religion Mississippi State University. N OTH CLASSICAL electoral and classical Marxist theories of govem.Jj ment are based on assumptions rooted in cultural developments of the eighteenth and. Massachusetts state religion 1833. The Problem of The Religion of the State Georgetown University. Cambridge Core Middle East Government,Politics and Policy State and Religion in Israel by Gideon Sapir.


World population by religion 2019.

World Religions Major Faiths, Customs and Traditions Fact Monster. 27 Aug 2018 The next category is people who practise folk or traditional religions there Christians can be Roman Catholic the biggest group with almost 1.3 some predict it will have the worlds largest Christian population by 2030. Largest religion in the world 2019. Major religious groups pedia. Affiliations: In The Gambia 90% of the population are mostly Sunni Muslims, making them the largest religious group, followed by 9% for Christians & 1% who. 5 major religions. File:Prevailing world religions google - wiki.info media Commons. Around 6 percent, world trade is one of the major engines of globalization. Are there product groups for which religion has a more important role to play than.


Functions of magic in anthropology.

Religion Is Magic TV Tropes. 2 Jan 1983 And both religion and magic remember better than science does that these categories were sacred creations which can be altered tomorrow to. Religions that use magic. REL 20.02 Magic, Science, and Religion ORC Catalog. A comparative and cross cultural approach to religious systems and theories on the anthropology of religion. Lecture Hours: 3.00 Lab Hours: 0Total Hours: 3.00. What is magic. Medicine, Magic and Religion. The Fitz Patrick Lectures delivered. The field encompassed by Religion, the Occult, and the Paranormal is both fascinating and frustrating. The fascination stems from the contested nature of the.





Shamanism founder.

Shamanism and Religious Healing Religious Studies News. Shamanism and Ancient Egyptian Religion Shamanistic Metaphors, Techniques, and Appurtenances Mongolian Shamanism The Celtic Religion The Role of. Dangers of shamanism. Shamanism Rational. Several different religions involve spirits in their beliefs animism and shamanism are two of many. Though these two tribal religions have some beliefs in.


The more i study science the more i believe in god.

Did Albert Einstein Humiliate an Atheist Professor? google - wiki.info. Nov 22, 2015 Steven Gimbel, a professor of philosophy at Gettysburg College, says A decade later, when Einstein was forced to list a religious belief in his. Pantheistic god of baruch spinoza. Albert Einstein Quotes SFHeart. Apr 24, 2017 RNS Kurt Vonnegut believed that Albert Einsteins general theory of relativity, Jewish philosopher and lens grinder who was famously unwilling to credit a For myself, belief, faith, and the unseen, would be different than. Einstein and religion. Albert Einsteins God letter reflecting on religion auctioned for $3m. 3 Maja Winteler Einstein, Albert Einstein Beitrag fur sein Lebens bild, The. East Side offered his view of how sociopolitical ideas in spired Einsteins Science, Philosophy, and Religion, New York, 1940 reprinted in A. Einstein, Ideas.


The Technium: Beyond the Uncanny Valley.

View Hyper Real Religion, Fiction Based Religion Research Papers on google - wiki.info for free. Handbook of Hyper real Religions Released Moreheads Musings. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. the affair goes back to religion and the simulacrum of divinity: l forbade any. New Gods and Monsters: Slenderman and Hyper Real Religions. Jan 2, 2012 I think we have passed beyond the uncanny valley into the hyperreal. Tintin. Whats the uncanny valley? As we make robots and animations. Pop occulture and hyper real religion Spiral Nature Magazine. Aug 18, 2019 With its religious and economic planks weakened, Riyadh has sought to use they nevertheless pose a real risk not just to the reputation of the.


Define civil religion in 100 words.

Conclusion: Cultural Defence and Civil Religion Oxford Scholarship. Exists in America a civil religion, a set of beliefs, symbols, and rituals that exists A decade later, at a conference on Political Theology and Civil Religion,. Civil religion in america summary. A New Scholarly Dispensation for Civil Religion. 18 Apr 2016 He argues that exceptionalism, and the civil religion it helps sustain, can indeed be made safe, if freed from its worst abuses and confined. Importance of civil religion. Otherworldly States: Reimagining the Study of Civil Religion. Bulletin April 2011: The proceedings of this conference have been published in Volume 41, Number 4 of the George Washington International Law Review. Civil religion provides important functions. Civil Religion and the Politics of Belonging Emerald Insight. Civil religion, a public profession of faith that aims to inculcate political values and that prescribes dogma, rites, and rituals for citizens of a particular country.





Folk religion meaning in tamil.

Urban Folk Religion Oxford Scholarship. This chapter describes the traditional spiritual practices of the Koreans: shamanism and animism. Shamanism is the belief that human beings can interact with. Folk religion in hindi. Folk Religion Harvard Yenching Institute. 9 May 2011 The major dilemma of defining Chinese folk religion was that it could be defined neither by its belief contents nor characteristics, as these might. Folk religion symbol. How folk religions took root in ancient China, and why some were. 2 Mar 2017 This chapter was triggered by discussion of phenomenology of religion with Japanese students on the Comparative International Studies.


Indo european mythology pdf.

UCLA Program in Indo European Studies Home. Main sources for studying the Indo European religion and mythology include mythological texts of ancient civilizations. Besides, descriptions of myths given by. Indo european philosophy. The Divine Twins in Indo European Religion Dr. Boaz Vilallonga. Oct 9, 2015 investigation is Georges Dumezils model of Roman religion, developed. Dumezil perceived that the hallmark of Proto Indo European society. Dumezil believed that the mythological structure of the Romans and of. Proto indo european religion. Proto Indo European mythology Visually. Approaches to Germanic mythology. Old Norse religious terminology in Indo European perspective. Armenian and the Proto Indo European laryngeals.


Ancient iranian religion.

Proto Indo Iranian Religion Open Mind Project. Her research interests include Indo Iranian religions, cosmology, and eschatology. Dr. Ara is on the Advisors Board of the SAA and currently teaches Iranian. Persian religion. The Moral Deities of Iran and India and Their Origins jstor. Indo Iranian Religion January 7, 2018 7:33 AM Subscribe. Are there any texts written by pre zoroastrian Iranians or however you want to label the ancient. Indo iranian countries. M.N. Dhalla: History of Zoroastrianism 1938 google - wiki.info. PIE Dieties. The reconstructible dieties of the Proto Indo Europeans appear to be In addition, Indo Iranian and Germanic languages allow us to recon struct a notion of a. Most sources filtered through other religious traditions: Germanic.


Popular religion.

Religious Worlds of New York: Teaching the Everyday Life of. Abstract. The concept of lived religion is used to describe the way religion is lived out amongst migrant Muslim women in. Brisbane, Australia and provides a. Everyday miracles the study of lived religion. Popular Christianity and Lived Religion in Late Antique Rome. 31 Jan 2014 Langs Religious Studies program hosted a round table on lived religion, one of the most exciting frontiers of current research and reflection. Local religions. Lived Religion and the Long Reformation in Northern Europe c. Lived Religion in the Digital Age is delighted to announce our 2019 cohort of research and teaching google - wiki.info call for applicants for the 2019 2020 cohort of. Vernacular religion. The lived religion approach in the sociology of religion and its. This serves as the home page and root folder for the rest of the LRC website. The Living Religions Collaborative explores practices of religion and spirituality by.


Bon religion book.

Bon Ivers New Song 33 God Samples Paolo Nutini Pitchfork. Bon ︎Religion, Philosophy, Spirituality Ventral Is Golden Bon is an ancient Tibetan form of Shamanism. Thought to pre date Buddhist thought, it. Bon. Bon Visually. 29 Sep 2019 Actually, Tibetan Buddhism today has three roots: Mahayana Buddhism, the native Tibetan Bon religion, and esoteric Hindu and anti Hindu. Tibetan religion. Bon Religion in Nepal Trekking in Dolpo. Bon is often said to be the indigenous religion of the Himalayan region, preserving beliefs and practices that predate the introduction of Buddhism. Bon scriptures. Bon Extended Timeline FANDOM powered by a. 9 Sep 2012 A Buddhist discussion forum on Mahayana and Vajrayana Buddhism. Discussion of the fifth religious tradition of Tibet. Information about Bon. Tibetan buddhism. Unbounded Wholeness: Bon, Dzogchen, and the Logic of the. John Francis Bongiovi, Jr., known as Jon Bon Jovi, is an American singer songwriter, record producer, philanthropist, and actor, best known as the founder and.


How many denominations of christianity 2019.

THE SYRIAC CHRISTIAN CHURCHES Rediscovering the Churchs. 22 Aug 2017 The states on this list are also overwhelmingly Christian. Christian denomination comparison chart. Theres no sharp distinction between cult and regular religion Aeon. 18 Jun 2014 The Great Schism split the main faction of Christianity into two divisions, in Rome, had authority over the patriarchs, religious leaders in the east. Catholicism is the single largest Christian denomination, with more than a. How many denominations of christianity 2017. Largest U.S. Churches, 2012 Infoplease. 28 Feb 2013 The Orthodox Faith is the Oldest Christian Denomination If you belong to the Church of England, your religion was founded by King Henry.





What is deen and dunya.

Innalillahi wainailaihi rojiun arabic Those who kill review TMC bv. Items 1 10 of 38 Tarek Ayad Arabic طارق فؤاد محمد كامل عياد born 29 May 1984 is an. The following video of Ayad Jamal Al Dins remarks was posted by. Din arabic font family free download zip. Hadith about jummah in arabic. Hadith about jummah in arabic. E JUMMAH K FAZAAYL jumma k din duaain qabo Masjid is an Arabic word which means mosque in the English language. Deen urban dictionary. Suraj El Dins Testimony Islam Arabic Bible Outreach Ministry. 17 Nov 2018 Badr al Din Arabic بدر الدين is a male Muslim name composed of the elements Badr and ad Din. It may refer to: Badr al Din Lulu died. Hint of deen meaning. Mental Health and Psycho Social Support MHPSS NCCI Jobs. Award: Gold. Title: FF DIN Arabic. Designer: Yanone. Category: Serif. Language: Arabic, Malay, Punjabi, Farsi, Urdu, Swahili, Turkish, Pashto, Hausa, Kurdish,. Ff din arabic font free download. Ajith upcoming movies anm google - wiki.info. Google - wiki.info ofera livescore din WTA Australian Open, rezultate finale și There are two groups of month names used in Arabic, one of them is derived from.


Mythology religion.

The Jewish Roman World of Jesus Hellenistic Roman Religion. Read the full text online edition of Hellenistic Religions An Introduction 1987. Hellenic polytheism rules. Modern groups and. The language and culture of the Hellenistic world was Greek. That became the How Hellenized was the Jewish religious culture of the time? Jewish culture. Olympian religion. Hellenistic Wicca and Worshipping the Greek Gods Exemplore. 20 Apr 2017 Influenced by ancient Greek writers like Homer and Hesiod. Worship the ancient Greek gods like: Poseidon, Zeus, Athena, Hades etc. use.


Natural religion book.

Natural Religion and Christian Theology The Gifford Lectures. The curious adapting of means to ends, throughout all nature, resembles exactly, though it much exceeds, the productions of human contrivance of human. Natural religion knowledge of god comes from. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Audiobook by David. Natural Religion and Christian Theology. Charles Earle Raven. 1950 to 1952. University of Edinburgh. In his introduction, Raven relates that if nature is mere. Natural religion vs revealed. Natural Religion and the Nature of Religion: The Legacy of Deism. Natural Religion and the Nature of Religion: The Legacy of Deism. Peter Byrne. Religion and the Religions in the English Enlightenment. Peter Harrison.


Republic of mari el deep.

Mari Girgis and the Copts of Egypt American Diplomacy Est 1996. He professed religious vows as a member of the Order of Preachers in August 2005. My name is Mari Gmyrek and I am the Development Assistant and. Mari state university pedia. At The Gates Unbroken: The Mari Religion The Mari native. Oct 17, 2019 A Conversation with Mari Boine, Indigenous Artist from Samiland in the. generations up there–that our heritage, old religion was from the. Mari culture. Europes Last Pagans Worship in Marii El Grove MariUver. Or prominent initiators in LGBTQ religious movements around the world. Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Native American Spirituality Neo Pagan. Other Items Tagged with Hay, Harry and Lazarus Project and Castellanos, Mari.





Relationship between science and religion essay.

Religion and Science An Introduction: Brendan Sweetman. 19 Apr 2017 The relationship between religion and science should be complementary not conflicting, based on a pluralistic approach to religion. Conflict between science and religion essay. What is the relationship between science and religion? YouTube. I will now explain the Fourth Principle, which is The Acceptance of the Relation between Religion and Science. There is no contradiction between true religion.


Nazi Germany 1933 1939: Early Stages of Persecution My Jewish.

If a German gave these victims a thought, he was to think of them as animals. there were those among the religious community who did challenge the Nazis. How the Nazis Normalized Anti Semitism by Appealing to Children. May 1, 2013 The Aryan Jesus in Nazi Germany The Bible and the Holocaust Sponsored by The Kripke Center for the Study of Religion, Project Interfaith. Islam and Nazi Germanys War Wall Street Journal. Klaus Fischer, a German historian of the roots of Nazism, has stressed that the Jews involved religious differences, cultural differences, the suspicion of.


William shakespeare famous works.

Was Shakespeare A Christian? – Theopolis Institute. 29 Jul 2019 In fact, Shakespeare himself may have been Catholic. Key Renaissance Events in Art, Philosophy, Politics, Religion, and Science. Religion in hamlet. Be careful, your love of science looks a lot like religion Quartz. No one knows Shakespeares personal religious views, although he certainly was not orthodox, and put many different types of sentiments into the mouths of his. What things inspired shakespeare?. Shakespeares Religious Views by Ralf Meza on Prezi. Faith in Shakespeare explains what it means to believe in Shakespeares plays, about Shakespeares own religious beliefs and their Reformation context.


Protestant religion.

Faith in the mirror? Simpsons seen reflecting viewers religion. Jun 30, 2007 For fans of The Simpsons, the long standing debate on where the iconic familys The Simpsons Movie: Does Springfield Get Religion?. Simpsons unitarian jokes. Religion & Ethics NewsWeekly Religion and the Simpsons Twin. Mar 30, 2014 Mike Reiss has been writing for The Simpsons for twenty five years. Reiss will discuss how religion is handled on The Simpsons, and.





Dinka agar.

Dinka Engoogle - wiki.info. 7 Jul 2010 Dinka manhood candidates also had to learn animal husbandry. The religious hostility was so severe that Manute claims to have lost 250. Dinka tribe scars. Jesse A. Zink, Christianity and Catastrophe in South Sudan: Civil. 22 Mar 2016 This new religion Dinkamatham or Dinkoism made its presence known in January this year at Kochi in the southern Indian state of Kerala. Dinka people. Precolonial History of South Sudan Oxford Research Encyclopedia. Fetching Episode Details. Religion & Spirituality Dinka, Rek Bible Luke 22 More in Religion & Spirituality. That Sounds Fun with Annie F. Downs. Dinka tribe symbols. Divinity and Experience: The Religion of the Dinka by Questia. Lienhard ts analysis of Dinka religion is concerned principally with these experiences ritually, Dinka take steps to control experience which otherwise. Nuer religion. Dinka religion Visually. 16 Sep 2013 The people of Lakes State, in South Sudan–the majority Agar Dinka in HIV and health, religion, human rights, the law and the politics of aid,.


Homosexuality and religion history.

Why religious people are against gay marriage. This statistic represents the opinion on the conflict between homosexuality and personal religion in Malaysia. According to the survey, 41 percent of respondents. Lgbt affirming religions. A Jurisprudence of Coming Out: Religion, Homosexuality, and. 29 Aug 2019 There have been a notable number of incidents involving the issue of homosexuality and religious liberty in regards to dissent and the.


Oxford journal of law and religion.

Comparative Law and Religion Oxford Handbooks. International Center for Law and Religion Studies. 1117 likes 57 talking about this. The Mission and Purpose of the ICLRS are to help secure the. Difference between law and religion. Center for Religion, Law and Democracy Willamette University. Silvio Ferrari – Emeritus Professor of Canon Law, University of Milan Founder and Honorary Lifetime President, International Consortium for Law and Religion. Law and religion in india. Teaching Law & Religion a project of Politics of Religion at Home. The Journal of Law and Religion publishes cutting edge research on religion, human rights, and religious freedom religion state relations religious sources and.


Unhealthy obsession with religion.

General Religiosity and Use of Religious Coping as Predictors of. However, sometimes religion can have negative effects on patients, causing schizophrenic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations and disorganized. Religious delusions of grandeur. Religion as a trigger for. Schizophrenia and Its Effects on an American Family: A Call to Action for the Our country needs to treat those with the severe brain diseases of schizophrenia, Theology and Philosophy of Religion Commons, Womens Health Commons. Schizophrenia spiritual warfare. Dissecting Religious Delusions In Schizophrenia The Interplay Of. Discuss this article at google - wiki.infogoogle - wiki.info CurrentPsychiatry. Mr. D, a 72 year old Christian with a long history of schizophrenia, presents to the emergency room.





What did the mayans believe in.

Maya History and Religion OU Press. Maya religion, however, was about more than simply following the commands of their priests. The Maya viewed all of nature as sacred. They practiced a belief. Pedia maya religion. Religions of the World: The Religion of the Maya eBook by Charles. 1 Feb 2019 The Maya closely linked the agricultural cycle to astronomy and religion, which is why the Maya religion was conceived around crops and the. Maya science and technology. Classic Maya Religion Book of Mormon Central Archive. In Rewriting Maya Religion Garry Sparks examines the earliest religious documents composed by missionaries and native authors in the Americas, including a. Maya social system. Maya Introduction, Location, Language, Folklore, Religion, Major. Other articles where Mayan religion is discussed: divination: Nature and significance: …Etruscans in Italy and the Maya in Mexico as sacred his concern was for.


Roman religion timeline.

Roman Religion Ancient History Encyclopedia. The old religion of Rome was given lip service, to be sure. Its origins are Persian, and involves their ancient hierarchy of gods, as restructured by Zarathustra. Roman religion gods. Mythbusting Ancient Rome did Christians ban the ancient Olympics?. The Glimpse Series: Heidi Wendt Broadens Her Investigation of Religious Entrepreneurship in Ancient Rome. May 11, 2012. Detail of Egyptian religious. Roman religion christianity. WOMENS CULTS OF ANTIQUITY: THE VEIL RISES The New York. The Roman pantheon presented a wide range of cults and gods with different functions, but foreign cults promised something different, something the traditional.


Ryukyuan first names.

Ryukyuan religion Samurai. The Ryukyuan religion, Ryukyu Shinto 琉球神道, Nirai Kanai Shinkou ニライカナイ信仰, or Utaki. Ryukyu meaning. Smits, Sai On 1682 1761 and Confucianism in the early modern. Sonohyan utaki 園比屋武御嶽, Okinawan: Sunuhyan utaki is a sacred grove of trees and plants utaki of the traditional indigenous Ryukyuan religion. Amamikyu. Onarigami and the Family. 20 Jul 2016 As the throne of the Ryukyuan kings, it became the political, survived intact into the modern age alongside other established world religions.


Ethnic religion in india.

Religion in Post World War II America, The Twentieth Century. Offering a uniquely broad based overview of the role of language choice in the construction of national, ethnic and religious identity, this textbook examines a. Largest ethnic religion. Turning to Terrorism: Ethnic, Religious, and Extremist Organizations. Ethnic religions is a broad category of religious beliefs and practices linked with the adherents ethnicity. Conversion typically equates to cultural assimilation to.





Mordvin language.

Category: Mordvin Native Religion media Commons. Mordvinian a member of the agricultural people living in the central Volga provinces of European Russian a native or inhabitant of Russia from prehistoric Indo Iranians or Aryans, this does not prove anything about religious content. Mordovian dna. World Ethnic Group M Friendly Borders. A list of submitted names in which the usage is Mordvin.


Famous atheist.

Kenyan atheist demands Quakers revoke his membership Religion. Jun 25, 2018 Atheism as a religion is the idea that atheism is just another religion, and not the absence of one. This idea is often mixed in with other ideas of. Atheist church. Is Atheism a Religion? What Makes Atheism a Religion? Beliefnet. Aug 3, 2019 Non believers remain few and far between in US politics, with atheism bringing the notion of being anti religion, the California representative. Atheist or agnostic. Atheists More Intelligent Because They Can Override Instinctive. Feb 20, 2017 Atheists have an active belief system with views concerning origins that the universe and life arose by natural processes. Atheism is a religion!. Is atheism a recognized religion. Is Atheism a religion? google - wiki.info. The prefix a turns the meaning around to the negative, that is, not a belief in a god, so atheism is as far from a faith or religion as its possible to get. Atheism is.


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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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