ⓘ Sport


Sports at the Universiade



Bobsleigh or bobsled is a team winter sport that involves making timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked, iced tracks in a gravity-powered sleigh. International bobsleigh competitions are governed by the International Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation, also known as FIBT from the French Federation Internationale de Bobsleigh et de Tobogganing. National competitions are often governed by bodies such as the United States Bobsled and Skeleton Federation and Bobsleigh Canada Skeleton. The first bobsleds were built in St. Moritz, Switzerland, in the late 19th century by wealthy tourists from V ...



Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring. Amateur boxing is both an Olympic and Commonwealth Games sport and is a standard fixture in most international games - it also has its own World Championships. Boxing is overseen by a referee over a series of one- to three-minute intervals called rounds. A winner can be resolved before the completion of the rounds when a referee deems an opponent incapable of continuing, disqualification of an opponent, or resignation of an oppone ...


Freestyle wrestling

Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world. Along with Greco-Roman, it is one of the two styles of wrestling contested in the Olympic games. American high school and college wrestling is conducted under different rules and is termed scholastic and collegiate wrestling. Freestyle wrestling, like collegiate wrestling, has its greatest origins in catch-as-catch-can wrestling. In both styles the ultimate goal is to throw and pin the opponent to the mat, which results in an immediate win. Unlike Greco-Roman, freestyle and collegiate wrestling allo ...


Greco-Roman wrestling

Greco-Roman, Graeco-Roman or classic wrestling is a style of wrestling that is practiced worldwide. It was contested at the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and has been included in every edition of the summer Olympics held since 1904. This style of wrestling forbids holds below the waist; this is the major difference from freestyle wrestling, the other form of wrestling at the Olympics. This restriction results in an emphasis on throws because a wrestler cannot use trips to take an opponent to the ground, or avoid throws by hooking or grabbing the opponents leg. According to United Worl ...



Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible. Golf, unlike most ball games, cannot and does not utilize a standardized playing area, and coping with the varied terrains encountered on different courses is a key part of the game. The game at the usual level is played on a course with an arranged progression of 18 holes, though recreational courses can be smaller, often having nine holes. Each hole on the course must contain a tee box to start from, and a putting green containing the actual hole ...



Equestrianism, more often known as horse riding or horseback riding, includes the disciplines of riding, driving, or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, transportation, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, and competitive sport.


Speed skating

Speed skating is a competitive form of ice skating in which the competitors race each other in travelling a certain distance on skates. Types of speed skating are long track speed skating, short track speed skating, and marathon speed skating. In the Olympic Games, long-track speed skating is usually referred to as just "speed skating", while short-track speed skating is known as "short track". The ISU, the governing body of both ice sports, refers to long track as "speed skating" and short track as "short track skating". An international federation was founded in 1892, the first for any w ...



Judo is generally categorized as a modern martial art, which has since evolved into a combat and Olympic sport. The sport was created in 1882 by Jigoro Kano as a physical, mental, and moral pedagogy in Japan. Judos most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or take down an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defences are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms and are not allowe ...


Alpine skiing

Alpine skiing, or downhill skiing, is the pastime of sliding down snow-covered slopes on skis with fixed-heel bindings, unlike other types of skiing, which use skis with free-heel bindings. Whether for recreation for sport, it is typically practised at ski resorts, which provide such services as ski lifts, artificial snow making, snow grooming, restaurants, and ski patrol. "Off-piste" skiers - those skiing outside ski area boundaries - may employ snowmobiles, helicopters or snowcats to deliver them to the top of a slope. Back-country skiers may use specialized equipment with a free-heel mo ...



Gymnastics is a sport that includes exercises requiring balance, strength, flexibility, agility, coordination, and endurance. The movements involved in gymnastics contribute to the development of the arms, legs, shoulders, back, chest, and abdominal muscle groups. Alertness, precision, daring, self-confidence, and self-discipline are mental traits that can also be developed through gymnastics. Gymnastics evolved from exercises used by the ancient Greeks that included skills for mounting and dismounting a horse and from circus performance skills. The most common form of competitive gymnasti ...



Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team that scores more goals wins. Modern handball is played on a court of 40 by 20 metres 131 by 66 ft, with a goal in the middle of each end. The goals are surrounded by a 6-meter 20 ft zone where only the defending goalkeeper is allowed; goals must be scored by throwing the ball from outside the zone or while "diving" into it. The sport is usually played indoors, but out ...


Water polo

Water polo is a competitive team sport played in water between two teams. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the ball into the opposing teams goal. The team with the most goals at the end of the game wins the match. Each team is made up of six field players and one goalkeeper. Excluding the goalkeeper, players participate in both offensive and defensive roles. Water polo is typically played in an all-deep pool so that players cannot touch the bottom. A game of water polo mainly consists of the players swimming to move about the pool ...


Sailing (sport)

The sport of sailing involves a variety of competitive sailing formats that are sanctioned through various sailing federations and yacht clubs. Racing disciplines include matches within a fleet of sailing craft, between a pair thereof or among teams. Additionally, there are specialized competitions that include setting speed records. Racing formats include both closed courses and point-to-point contests; they may be in sheltered waters, coast-wise or on the open ocean. Most competitions are held within defined classes or ratings that either entail one type of sailing craft to ensure a cont ...


Cross-country skiing (sport)

The sport of cross-country skiing encompasses a variety of formats for cross-country skiing races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the International Ski Federation and by various national organizations, such as the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association and Cross Country Ski Canada. International competitions include the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, the FIS Cross-Country World Cup, and at the Winter Olympic Games. Such races occur over homologated, groomed courses designed to support classic and freestyle events, where the skiers may employ skate skiing. ...


Freestyle skiing

Freestyle skiing is a skiing discipline comprising aerials, moguls, cross, half-pipe, slopestyle and big air as part of the Winter Olympics. It can consist of a skier performing aerial flips and spins, and can include skiers sliding rails and boxes on their skis. It is also commonly referred to as freeskiing, jibbing, as well as many other names around the world.


Figure skating

Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice. It was the first winter sport to be included in the Olympic Games, when it was contested at the 1908 Olympics in London. The four Olympic disciplines are mens singles, ladies singles, pair skating, and ice dance. Non-Olympic disciplines include synchronized skating, Theater on Ice, and four skating. From intermediate through senior-level competition, skaters generally perform two programs, which may include spins, jumps, moves in the field, lifts, throw jumps, death spirals, and other elements ...



Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. The three disciplines in modern fencing are the foil, the epee, and the sabre ; winning points are made through the weapons contact with an opponent. A fourth discipline, singlestick, appeared in the 1904 Olympics but was dropped after that, and is not a part of modern fencing. Fencing was one of the first sports to be played in the Olympics. Based on the traditional skills of swordsmanship, the modern sport arose at the end of the 19th century, with the Italian school having modified the historical European martial art of classical fencin ...



A triathlon is a multisport race with three continuous and sequential endurance races. The word is of Greek origin, from τρεῖς or treis and ἆθλος or athlos. While variations of the sport exist, the most common form includes swimming, cycling, and running over various distances. Triathletes compete for fastest overall course completion, including timed transitions between the three races. A transition area is set up where the athletes change gear for different segments of the race. This is where the switches from swimming to cycling and cycling to running occur. These areas are used to stor ...



Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket that is strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponents court. The object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player who is unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is an Olympic sport and is played at all levels of society and at all ages. The sport can be ...



Archery is the art, sport, practice, or skill of using a bow to shoot arrows. The word comes from the Latin arcus. Historically, archery has been used for hunting and combat. In modern times, it is mainly a competitive sport and recreational activity. A person who participates in archery is typically called an archer or a bowman, and a person who is fond of or an expert at archery is sometimes called a toxophilite.


Diving (sport)

Diving is the sport of jumping or falling into water from a platform or springboard, usually while performing acrobatics. Diving is an internationally recognized sport that is part of the Olympic Games. In addition, unstructured and non-competitive diving is a recreational pastime. Competitors possess many of the same characteristics as gymnasts and dancers, including strength, flexibility, kinaesthetic judgment and air awareness. Some professional divers were originally gymnasts or dancers as both the sports have similar characteristics to diving. Dmitri Sautin holds the record for most O ...


Sled dog racing

Sled dog racing is a winter dog sport most popular in the Arctic regions of the United States, Canada, Russia, Greenland and some European countries. It involves the timed competition of teams of sled dogs that pull a sled with the dog driver or musher standing on the runners. The team completing the marked course in the least time is judged the winner. A sled dog race was a demonstration sport at the 1932 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid, New York and again at the Olympics in Oslo, and once more in the 1994 Winter Olympics in Lillehammer, but it did not gain official event status. Sled dogs ...



Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat. The objective of the offensive team is to hit the ball into the field of play, allowing its players to run the bases, having them advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team is to prevent batters from becoming runners, and to prevent runners advance around the bases. A run is ...


Southeast Asian Games

The Southeast Asian Games, also known as the SEA Games, is a biennial multi-sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast Asia. The games is under regulation of the Southeast Asian Games Federation with supervision by the International Olympic Committee and the Olympic Council of Asia.


Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of 11 players. It is played by approximately 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the worlds most popular sport. The game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Football is played in accordance with a set of rules known as the Laws of the Game. The ball is 68–70 cm 27–28 in circumference and known as ...


Commonwealth Games

The Commonwealth Games is an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The event was first held in 1930, and has taken place every four years since then. The Commonwealth Games were known as the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. Athletes with a disability are also included as full members of their national teams, making the Commonwealth Games as the first fully inclusive international multi-sport event. It is also the worlds first m ...



Basketball is a team sport in which two teams, most commonly of five players each, opposing one another on a rectangular court, compete with the primary objective of shooting a basketball in diameter) through the defenders hoop in diameter mounted 10 feet high to a backboard at each end of the court) while preventing the opposing team from shooting through their own hoop. A field goal is worth two points, unless made from behind the three-point line, when it is worth three. After a foul, timed play stops and the player fouled or designated to shoot a technical foul is given one or more one ...


1930 British Empire Games

The 1930 British Empire Games were the first of what later became known as the Commonwealth Games, and were held in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from 16–23 August 1930. The games were organized by Hamilton Spectator sportswriter Bobby Robinson after he attended the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam as manager of the Canadian track and field team and was inspired to create a similar event for the British Empire. After campaigning for the idea among contacts he met at the Olympics, he was asked to organise the first British Empire Games in Hamilton. The events included athletics, boxing, lawn b ...


Central American and Caribbean Games

The Central American and Caribbean Games are a multi-sport regional championship event, held quadrennial, typically in the middle year between Summer Olympics. The Games are for countries in Central America, the Caribbean, Mexico, and the South American Caribbean countries of Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, and Venezuela. The Games are overseen by the Central American and Caribbean Sports Organization CACSO the organization also goes by the acronym "ODECABE", from its full Spanish name: O rganizacion De portiva C entro a mericana y del Cari be. They are designed to provide a step between sub-C ...



The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. It is treated as a race where the contestant with the shortest total time wins. Depending on the competition, missed shots result in extra distance or time being added to the contestants total.


Goodwill Games

The Goodwill Games was an international sports competition created by Ted Turner in reaction to the political troubles surrounding the Olympic Games of the 1980s. In 1979, the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan caused the United States and other Western countries to boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, an act reciprocated when the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Like the Olympics, the Goodwill Games were held every four years with the exception of the final Games, and had a summer and winter component. The Summer Goodwill ...


Indian Ocean Island Games

The Indian Ocean Island Games is a multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from Indian Ocean island nations. The Games was created by the International Olympic Committee in 1977 and currently gather the island nations and territories of Mauritius, Seychelles, Comoros, Madagascar, Mayotte, Reunion and the Maldives. The number of athletes who participate has increased over the years, it went from 1000 athletes in 1979 to over 1500 participants in 2003 and 2007 and over 2000 participants in 2019.


Jumping stilts

Jumping stilts, bounce stilts or spring stilts are special stilts that allow the user to run, jump and perform various acrobatics. Spring stilts using fiberglass leaf springs were patented in the United States in 2004 under the trademark "PowerSkip", marketed for recreational and extreme sports use. Spring stilts are often mostly made of aluminium. Using these stilts is also called "bocking" or "powerbocking", a corrupted version of the name of the stilts inventor, Alexander Bock.


Olympic Games

The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the worlds foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating. The Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games Ancient Greek: Ὀλυμπιακοί Ἀγῶνες, which were held in Olympia, ...




ⓘ Sport

Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, through casual or organised participation, at least in part aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment for spectators. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a "tie" or "draw", in which there is no single winner; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs.

Sport is generally recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, and other organisations such as the Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee through ARISF recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts checkers, Go and xiangqi, and limits the number of mind games which can be admitted as sports.

Sport is usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first. It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression.

Records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. Sport is also a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, and reaching wider audiences through broadcasting. Sport betting is in some cases severely regulated, and in some cases is central to the sport.

According to A.T. Kearney, a consultancy, the global sporting industry is worth up to $620 billion as of 2013. The worlds most accessible and practised sport is running, while association football is the most popular spectator sport.


1.1. Meaning and usage Etymology

The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning "leisure", with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining".

Other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling; hunting; and games and diversions, including ones that require exercise. Rogets defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation.


1.2. Meaning and usage Nomenclature

The singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept e.g. "children taking part in sport", with "sports" used to describe multiple activities e.g. "football and rugby are the most popular sports in England". American English uses "sports" for both terms.


1.3. Meaning and usage Definition

The precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations, and is therefore the de facto representative of international sport.

SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should:

  • not rely on any "luck" element specifically designed into the sport.
  • have an element of competition
  • be in no way harmful to any living creature
  • not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier excluding proprietary games such as arena football

They also recognise that sport can be primarily physical such as rugby or athletics, primarily mind such as chess or Go, predominantly motorised such as Formula 1 or powerboating, primarily co-ordination such as billiard sports, or primarily animal-supported such as equestrian sport.

The inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports.

There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games, also called esports, especially due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not widely recognised by mainstream sports organisations. According to Council of Europe, European Sports Charter, article 2.i, Sport means all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels."


1.4. Meaning and usage Competition

There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with almost all professional sport involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee IOC or SportAccord.

Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the Council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, including those competed just for fun.

In order to widen participation, and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, there has been an introduction of non-competitive physical activity to traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often controversial.

In competitive events, participants are graded or classified based on their "result" and often divided into groups of comparable performance, e.g. gender, weight and age. The measurement of the result may be objective or subjective, and corrected with "handicaps" or penalties. In a race, for example, the time to complete the course is an objective measurement. In gymnastics or diving the result is decided by a panel of judges, and therefore subjective. There are many shades of judging between boxing and mixed martial arts, where victory is assigned by judges if neither competitor has lost at the end of the match time.


2. History

Artifacts and structures suggest sport in China as early as 2000 BC. Gymnastics appears to have been popular in Chinas ancient past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to warfare skills. Among other sports that originated in ancient Persia are polo and jousting.

A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sport in Greece influenced one another considerably. Sport became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the Peloponnesus called Olympia.

Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialisation has brought increased leisure time, letting people attend and follow spectator sports and participate in athletic activities. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sports popularity, as sports fans followed the exploits of professional athletes – all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with amateur participation in sports. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been increasing debate about whether transgender sportspersons should be able to participate in sport events that conform with their post-transition gender identity.


3.1. Fair play Sportsmanship

Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat.

Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that its "not that you won or lost but how you played the game", and the modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "The most important thing. is not winning but taking part" are typical expressions of this sentiment.


3.2. Fair play Cheating

Key principles of sport include that the result should not be predetermined, and that both sides should have equal opportunity to win. Rules are in place to ensure fair play, but participants can break these rules in order to gain advantage.

Participants may cheat in order to unfairly increase their chance of winning, or in order to achieve other advantages such as financial gains. The widespread existence of gambling on the results of sports fixtures creates a motivation for match fixing, where a participant or participants deliberately work to ensure a given outcome rather than simply playing to win.


3.3. Fair play Doping and drugs

The competitive nature of sport encourages some participants to attempt to enhance their performance through the use of medicines, or through other means such as increasing the volume of blood in their bodies through artificial means.

All sports recognised by the IOC or SportAccord are required to implement a testing programme, looking for a list of banned drugs, with suspensions or bans being placed on participants who test positive for banned substances.


3.4. Fair play Violence

Violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting or hooliganism by fans in particular is a problem at some national and international sporting contests.


4.1. Participation Gender participation

Female participation in sports continues to rise alongside the opportunity for involvement and the value of sports for child development and physical fitness. Despite gains during the last three decades, a gap persists in the enrollment figures between male and female players. Female players account for 39% of the total participation in US interscholastic athletics. Gender balance has been accelerating from a 32% increase in 1973–74 to a 63% increase in 1994–95. Hessel 2000.


4.2. Participation Youth participation

Youth sport presents children with opportunities for fun, socialisation, forming peer relationships, physical fitness, and athletic scholarships. Activists for education and the war on drugs encourage youth sport as a means to increase educational participation and to fight the illegal drug trade. According to the Center for Injury Research and Policy at Nationwide Childrens Hospital, the biggest risk for youth sport is death or serious injury including concussion. These risks come from running, basketball, association football, volleyball, gridiron, gymnastics, and ice hockey. Youth sport in the US is a $15 billion industry including equipment up to private coaching.


4.3. Participation Disabled participation

Disabled sports also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many of these are based on existing sports modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports. However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in able-bodied sports.


4.4. Participation Spectator involvement

The competition element of sport, along with the aesthetic appeal of some sports, result in the popularity of people attending to watch sport being played. This has led to the specific phenomenon of spectator sport.

Both amateur and professional sports attract spectators, both in person at the sport venue, and through broadcast media including radio, television and internet broadcast. Both attendance in person and viewing remotely can incur a sometimes substantial charge, such as an entrance ticket, or pay-per-view television broadcast.

It is common for popular sports to attract large broadcast audiences, leading to rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the rights to show certain fixtures. The football World Cup attracts a global television audience of hundreds of millions; the 2006 final alone attracted an estimated worldwide audience of well over 700 million and the 2011 Cricket World Cup Final attracted an estimated audience of 135 million in India alone.

In the United States, the championship game of the NFL, the Super Bowl, has become one of the most watched television broadcasts of the year. Super Bowl Sunday is a de facto national holiday in America; the viewership being so great that in 2015, advertising space was reported as being sold at $4.5m for a 30-second slot.


5. Amateur and professional

Sport can be undertaken on an amateur, professional or semi-professional basis, depending on whether participants are incentivised for participation usually through payment of a wage or salary. Amateur participation in sport at lower levels is often called "grassroots sport".

The popularity of spectator sport as a recreation for non-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in its own right, and this has incentivised a high paying professional sport culture, where high performing participants are rewarded with pay far in excess of average wages, which can run into millions of dollars.

Some sports, or individual competitions within a sport, retain a policy of allowing only amateur sport. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practised a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby. From 1971, Olympic athletes were allowed to receive compensation and sponsorship, and from 1986, the IOC decided to make all professional athletes eligible for the Olympics, with the exceptions of boxing, and wrestling.


6. Technology

Technology plays an important part in modern sport. With it being a necessary part of some sports such as motorsport, it is used in others to improve performance. Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision making.

Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear. Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in 1998 with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology. In order to control the impact of technology on fair play, governing bodies frequently have specific rules that are set to control the impact of technical advantage between participants. For example, in 2010, full-body, non-textile swimsuits were banned by FINA, as they were enhancing swimmers performances.

The increase in technology has also allowed many decisions in sports matches to be taken, or reviewed, off-field, with another official using instant replays to make decisions. In some sports, players can now challenge decisions made by officials. In Association football, goal-line technology makes decisions on whether a ball has crossed the goal line or not. The technology is not compulsory, but was used in the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil, and the 2015 FIFA Womens World Cup in Canada, as well as in the Premier League from 2013–14, and the Bundesliga from 2015–16. In the NFL, a referee can ask for a review from the replay booth, or a head coach can issue a challenge to review the play using replays. The final decision rests with the referee. A video referee commonly known as a Television Match Official or TMO can also use replays to help decision-making in rugby both league and union. In international cricket, an umpire can ask the Third umpire for a decision, and the third umpire makes the final decision. Since 2008, a decision review system for players to review decisions has been introduced and used in ICC-run tournaments, and optionally in other matches. Depending on the host broadcaster, a number of different technologies are used during an umpire or player review, including instant replays, Hawk-Eye, Hot Spot and Real Time Snickometer. Hawk-Eye is also used in tennis to challenge umpiring decisions.


7. Sports and education

Research suggests that sports have the capacity to connect youth to positive adult role models and provide positive development opportunities, as well as promote the learning and application of life skills. In recent years the use of sport to reduce crime, as well as to prevent violent extremism and radicalization, has become more widespread, especially as a tool to improve self-esteem, enhance social bonds and provide participants with a feeling of purpose.


8. Politics

Benito Mussolini used the 1934 FIFA World Cup, which was held in Italy, to showcase Fascist Italy. Adolf Hitler also used the 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin, and the 1936 Winter Olympics held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, to promote the Nazi ideology of the superiority of the Aryan race, and inferiority of the Jews and other "undesirables". Germany used the Olympics to give of itself a peaceful image while it was very actively preparing the war.

When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa, many sports people, particularly in rugby union, adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.

In the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Until the mid-20th century a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football, hurling, or other sports administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association GAA if she/he played or supported Association football, or other games seen to be of British origin. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of football and rugby union at Gaelic venues. This ban, also known as Rule 42, is still enforced, but was modified to allow football and rugby to be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road was redeveloped into Aviva Stadium. Until recently, under Rule 21, the GAA also banned members of the British security forces and members of the RUC from playing Gaelic games, but the advent of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the eventual removal of the ban.

Nationalism is often evident in the pursuit of sport, or in its reporting: people compete in national teams, or commentators and audiences can adopt a partisan view. On occasion, such tensions can lead to violent confrontation among players or spectators within and beyond the sporting venue, as in the Football War. These trends are seen by many as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sport being carried on for its own sake and for the enjoyment of its participants.

Sport and politics collided in the 1972 Olympics in Munich. Masked men entered the hotel of the Israeli Olympic team and killed many of their men. This was known as the Munich massacre.

A study of US elections has shown that the result of sports events can affect the results. A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences showed that when the home team wins the game before the election, the incumbent candidates can increase their share of the vote by 1.5 percent. A loss had the opposite effect, and the effect is greater for higher-profile teams or unexpected wins and losses. Also, when Washington Redskins win their final game before an election, then the incumbent President is more likely to win, and if the Redskins lose, then the opposition candidate is more likely to win; this has become known as the Redskins Rule.


8.1. Politics As a means of controlling and subduing populations

Etienne de La Boetie, in his essay Discourse on Voluntary Servitude describes athletic spectacles as means for tyrants to control their subjects by distracting them.

Do not imagine that there is any bird more easily caught by decoy, nor any fish sooner fixed on the hook by wormy bait, than are all these poor fools neatly tricked into servitude by the slightest feather passed, so to speak, before their mouths. Truly it is a marvelous thing that they let themselves be caught so quickly at the slightest tickling of their fancy. Plays, farces, spectacles, gladiators, strange beasts, medals, pictures, and other such opiates, these were for ancient peoples the bait toward slavery, the price of their liberty, the instruments of tyranny. By these practices and enticements the ancient dictators so successfully lulled their subjects under the yoke, that the stupefied peoples, fascinated by the pastimes and vain pleasures flashed before their eyes, learned subservience as naïvely, but not so creditably, as little children learn to read by looking at bright picture books.


9. Religious views

Sport was an important form of worship in Ancient Greek religion. The ancient Olympic Games, called the Olympiad, were held in honour of the head deity, Zeus, and featured various forms of religious dedication to him and other gods. As many Greeks travelled to see the games, this combination of religion and sport also served as a way of uniting them.

The practice of athletic competitions has been criticised by some Christian thinkers as a form of idolatry, in which "human beings extol themselves, adore themselves, sacrifice themselves and reward themselves." Sports are seen by these critics as a manifestation of "collective pride" and "national self-deification" in which feats of human power are idolized at the expense of divine worship.

Tertullian condemns the athletic performances of his day, insisting "the entire apparatus of the shows is based upon idolatry." The shows, says Tertullian, excite passions foreign to the calm temperament cultivated by the Christian:

God has enjoined us to deal calmly, gently, quietly, and peacefully with the Holy Spirit, because these things are alone in keeping with the goodness of His nature, with His tenderness and sensitiveness. Well, how shall this be made to accord with the shows? For the show always leads to spiritual agitation, since where there is pleasure, there is keenness of feeling giving pleasure its zest; and where there is keenness of feeling, there is rivalry giving in turn its zest to that. Then, too, where you have rivalry, you have rage, bitterness, wrath and grief, with all bad things which flow from them – the whole entirely out of keeping with the religion of Christ.

  • SPORT was an American sports magazine. Launched in September 1946 by New York - based publisher Macfadden Publications, SPORT pioneered the generous use
  • BBC Sport is a department of the BBC North division providing national sports coverage for BBC Television, radio and online. The BBC holds the television
  • Sky Sport is a group of nine sports satellite TV channels in the Italian language produced and broadcast by Sky Italia. Sky Sport Uno HD Sky Sport 24 since
  • BT Sport is a group of pay television sports channels provided by BT Consumer a division of BT Group in the United Kingdom and Ireland that was launched
  • Sports Channel Hebrew: ערוץ הספורט Arutz Ha Sport also known as the Sport 5 Hebrew: ספורט 5 Sport Hamesh is an Israeli television company. Available
  • team was established in 1939 as IF Sport Idrottsforeningen Sport Vaasan Sport was founded in 1939 as IF Sport The team was involved in the founding
  • can be more faithful Sport Sport Sport Sport Uma razão para viver A reason to live Sport Sport Sport Sport Sport Sport It is well defined
  • Sky Sport is a group of sports - oriented television channels operated by New Zealand s satellite pay - TV company, Sky Network Television. Sky Sport 1 is
  • A light - sport aircraft LSA or light sport aircraft, is a fairly new category of small, lightweight aircraft that are simple to fly. LSAs tend to be
  • Sport Boys Association, commonly referred to as Sport Boys or simply Boys, is a Peruvian football club based in the port city of Callao. It was founded
  • Sport climbing is a form of rock climbing that may rely on permanent anchors fixed to the rock for protection, in which a rope that is attached to the
  • Sport compact is an American car classification for a high - performance version of an affordable compact car or a subcompact car. There is no precise definition
  • Club Sport Ancash is a Peruvian football club, playing in the city of Huaraz. Sport Ancash was founded on April 22, 1967. The team plays its home games
  • A multi - sport event is an organized sporting event, often held over multiple days, featuring competition in many different sports among organized teams
  • Rai Sport is an Italian sports TV channel, launched in 1999 by the state - owned RAI television network. It broadcast Italian and international sports events
  • A sport touring motorcycle sometime a sports - tourer is a type of motorcycle that combines the performance of a sport bike with the long - distance capabilities
  • participate and excel in sport Sport Canada develops federal sport policy in Canada, provides funding programs in support of sport and administers special
  • Sport Select: The primary channel Ziggo Sport Voetbal: Soccer channel Ziggo Sport Golf: Golf channel Ziggo Sport Racing: Racing channel Ziggo Sport Docu:
  • magazine Sport US magazine DSL Sport a Serbian newspaper Sport Newspapers, an English publishing firm responsible for The Daily Sport Sunday Sport and
  • tackling of players. These sports are often known as full - contact, as the sport cannot be undertaken without contact. Other sports have contact, but such
  • to consider reading the Sport in England, Sport in Scotland, Sport in Wales or Sport in Northern Ireland articles, or the Sport in Ireland article where
  • Vaccines album, see Combat Sports album A combat sport or fighting sport is a competitive contact sport that usually involves one - on - one combat. In many
  • ČT Sport is Czech national sports channel, operated by Česka televize. ČT Sport was launched on 10 February 2006 at ČT4 Sport to promote digital television
  • Sport is an important part of Australia that dates back to the early colonial period. Cricket, Australian rules football, rugby league, rugby union, soccer
  • markets, but since the third generation model, the Pajero Sport Montero Sport Shogun Sport was the name used instead. Production began in Japan in 1996
  • Minister of State for Sport Media and Creative Industries is a junior minister in the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport of the United Kingdom
  • Animals in sport are a specific form of working animals. Many animals, at least in more commercial sports, are highly trained. Two of the most common
  • Sport management is the field of business dealing with sports and recreation. Some examples of sport managers include the front office system in professional
  • A Question of Sport is a British television sports quiz show. It is the world s longest running TV sports quiz. It is also available on BBC iPlayer

Users also searched:

definition of sports by different authors, sporting activities, sports articles for students, sports cricket, sports list, sports news, sports pedia, types of sports, sports at the universiade, Universiade, universiade, Sports, winter, winter universiade, summer, Sports at the Universiade, summer universiade, bobsleigh, bobsledding, sports, sport, sale, rules, movie, facts, video, bobsleigh sport, near, skeleton, bobsled, sport bobsleigh, bobsledding facts, bobsledding movie, bobsleigh olympics, bobsled for sale, bobsledding near me, skeleton sport, sporting,

Sport Shop the Semi Annual Sale: Clearance Sport Victorias Secret. Get the latest sports news, opinion, analysis, player rankings, scores, standings videos for NFL, NBA, MLB, NCAA, NHL, Olympics and more.. .. Sport Sports – Avada WP Theme. Dec 18, 2019 Though were not 24 7, SPoRT strives provide the most timely reliable data products to its partners and end users. A system has been. .. Sport 2020 Range Sport Luxury SUV Land Rover USA. Find breaking & sports news on NFL, NBA, NCAA, NHL, baseball, golf, tennis, soccer, World Series, Super Bowl, the Olympics and. .. Haircuts for Men & Boys Check in Online Sport Clips 2020. Shop our sale sport apparel to find your favorite sports bras, workout tops, leggings, sweatshirts and more all a low prices. Only at Victorias Secret.. .. Sport Sports YouTube. Alaska is world renowned fishing destination. fact, in this land.000 rivers, 3 million lakes and 6.640 miles of coastline, a sport anglers greatest. .. Sport Definition of Sport at. CBS Sports features live scoring, news, stats, player info for NFL, MLB baseball, NBA, NHL hockey, college basketball and football.. .. Sport Short term Prediction Research and Transition Center SPoRT. The U.S. Center SafeSport seeks to create a healthy, supportive environment for all participants.. .. Sport Beyond Sport. Visit ESPN get up to the minute sports news coverage, scores, highlights commentary for NFL, MLB, NBA, College Football, NCAA Basketball and more.. .. Sport Sports & Outdoors. Sport includes all forms of competitive physical activity games which, through casual organised participation, at least in part aim to use, maintain or. .. Sport The Home of Youth Sports Find Sport League, Camps, Clinics and. SportsEngine by NBC is home of youth sports. Find the perfect sport league, camp, clinic or tournament near you. From baseball, soccer and football. Sport Sports News, Scores, Schedules, Stats, Photos and Videos MSN. for championship haircut 2020? Sport Clips elevates the barber shop experience to keep you looking your best. Check in online with a hairstylist. .. Sport Sports The New York Times. Sport definition, an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature, as racing, baseball, tennis, golf, bowling, wrestling,. .. Sport Definition of Sport by Merriam Webster. definition is amuse oneself frolic. How to use in a sentence. Synonym Discussion of sport.. .. Sport Equipment for Team Sports Best Price Guarantee at DICKS. sports today at DICKS Sporting Goods. Browse equipment for baseball, football, hockey more and shop the best deals online.. .. CBS Sports News, Live Scores, Schedules, Fantasy Games, Video. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis. .. Sport Sign In U.S. Center for SafeSport. 2020 is both luxurious exceptionally functional. Explore the most dynamic Range Rover Sport vehicle yet, and customize yours. .. Sport Sport Fishing. Volkswagen. second, or third, look. Exterior. Interior. Side view an Atlas Cross Sport, lines of its design paralleling the landscape.. .. Sport ESPN: Serving sports fans. Anytime. Anywhere.. Beyond promotes, supports and celebrates use of sport to address social issues in communities around the world. We do this through global events,. .. 2020 VW Atlas Cross Sport Volkswagen. . $. 23. Sherpa Lined Fleece Zip Up Hoodies 2 Pack. 24 days left to buy. Deal of the Day. $. 19. 99. BINZIM Blackhead Remover Pore.

Encyclopedic dictionary


Jamaica Sports Track & Field, Football, Basketball, Cricket News.

Get the squad together with Social Boston Sports! Play in Bostons best social sports league – kickball, volleyball, soccer, softball and more! When you play with. Mens Gym & Sport Shorts adidas US. Sports news and scores, covering the NBA, NFL, MLB, NHL college and high school sports teams, Dodgers, Lakers, Angels, Clippers, Rams, Chargers, USC,. Sports Games Free Online Sports Games. Used sports cars for Sale on google - Search new and used cars, research vehicle models, and compare cars, all online at google - NSN: Your Source for Nevada Sports. UAB was so accommodating, you might have wondered if it were bleeding orange while losing. Estes: For Vandys Mason, there is no safety in playing it safe.

Chicago Sports News, Schedules & Scores Chicago Tribune.

Explore the most updated news and videos about popular sport events on 9GAG now!. Sports news, scores, analysis and opinion from the Guardian US. Boston sports news, scores, analysis, photos and video from the Boston Herald. Latest on the Patriots, Red Sox, Celtics, Bruins, Boston Marathon and more. Sports News, Scores, Schedules, Stats, Photos and Videos MSN. Go head to head and show your mates who is boss with Sky Sports Fantasy Football. The free to play fantasy football game where you could win up to £ 50000. Sports News Latest Sports Results The South African. Follow your favorite leagues, teams, and players with sports news on Jamaigoogle - about track and field, basketball, cricket, football, and more.

MARCA English Spanish football. Online journal leading sports.

Shop our collection of mens sport and athletic shorts for training, jogging, the gym & more. See all styles and colors in the official adidas online store. Sky Sports Fantasy Football. 3 days ago Sports coverage from the Omaha World Herald. Sports Facing pass heavy Purdue, Scott Frost needs Husker secondary to be ready. ESPN: Serving sports fans. Anytime. Anywhere. Sport definition is to amuse oneself frolic. How to use sport in a sentence. Synonym Discussion of sport.

Latest Sports News, Scores, Stats, Videos and Fantasy Sports USA.

Utah\s First Adult Coed Sport and Social Club. We offer kickball, dodgeball, football, bocce, volleyball, basketball and many more sports. We combine our. Sports News Scores Schedules & Standings Montreal Gazette. Sport definition, an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess and often of a competitive nature, as racing, baseball, tennis, golf, bowling, wrestling,. High School, Professional & College Sports Worcester, MA. Find local and international news, events, headlines, schedules and score updates from the world of sports. Sports New York Post. The Detroit News delivers news, analysis, and scores for Michigan, Michigan State, Lions, Tigers, Red Wings, Pistons, and high school sports.

Ozark Sports Zone All Local Sports. All The Time.

News about Chicago Bears, Cubs, Bulls, White Sox, Blackhawks, Fire from the Chicago Tribune, including latest injury reports, roster moves, trades, scores and. Sports google - Omaha World Herald. The ultimate source for Detroit sports news, scores, highlights and analysis, including Lions, Tigers, Red Wings, Pistons, Wolverines and Spartans. Sport, news, comment and analysis Gulf News. Sports. Watch well crafted videos that elevate various sports through creative filmmaking and some clever camera work. Start watching. The North Face.

Google - Sports News Sports Scores Sports Results.

Internet Website Login. Email Address: Password: Forgot your password? Site Type: Standard Website. All access to this website is logged. Only authorized. Sports Portland Press Herald The Portland Press Herald. Chris Creamers Sports Logos Page Sgoogle - A virtual museum of sports logos, uniforms and historical items. Currently over 10000 on display for your. Sports google - Minnesota Vikings, Minnesota Twins, Minnesota Wild, Gophers Sports, Minnesota Timberwolves, Minnesota United, east metro high schools and more sports. Fortnite – Sports TNB. 2196 Jobs For 30 years, weve connected people to sports jobs, careers and internships in the NBA, NFL, NHL, MLB, MLS, NASCAR, LPGA and many other. Sports Los Angeles Times. Your home for LaLiga, Serie A, PRO14, Scottish Cup, NHL and much more. Only £11.99 per month. Watch via Sky, Virgin or the Player.

The Tennessean Sports.

Nate Silvers FiveThirtyEight is the authoritative source for sports analytics, covering MLB, the NBA, NFL, and beyond. The Home of Youth Sports Find Sport League, Camps, Clinics and. Sport The latest results from sports events around the world: football, rugby, tennis, cycling Euronews keeps you in the loop. Sports Gear ASICS. CBS Sports features live scoring, news, stats, and player info for NFL football, MLB baseball, NBA basketball, NHL hockey, college basketball and football. Sports Illustrated. Current local, national and international sports news in hockey, baseball, tennis, football, basketball and golf. Check scores and schedules of your favorite sports. Sports Tickets StubHub. FOR YOUR BEST LIFE. From coffee dates to morning runs, see how the Sport Smartwatch gets Candice Huffine through the day. CANDICE HUFFINE Model.

Spgoogle - – The UKs No 1 Sports Retailer.

Google - sports The digital home for Arizona Republic sports coverage with scores, highlights and analysis from Arizona sports teams. The latest sport editorial, data, graphics and video with PA Media Sport. The latest sports news, video, analysis, scores and bettor info. Covering the PBA, NFL, MLB, NBA, NHL, NASCAR, soccer and more. Sgoogle - Chris Creamers Sports Logos Page. Read the latest sports news from across the country including scores, trade rumors and standings for baseball, football, basketball and more on the New York. BT Sport Watch Champions League and Ashes Live BT World leader in sports equipment now in the USA. Shop Decathlon for 10000 products across 80 sports. Free shipping over $50. Free pickup. Free returns.

Minnesota Sports News Pioneer Press.

Milwaukee and Wisconsin sports news, photos and videos from the Journal Sentinel and google - Home Official Home of BYU Athletics. Sports news, scores, blogs and opinion on US and world sports from the Guardian, the worlds leading liberal voice. Academy Sports Outdoors Quality Sporting Goods Top Hunting. Buy and sell tickets for upcoming sport events, including basketball, hockey, baseball, football and more at StubHub. Tickets are 100% guaranteed by. Sports News New York Daily News. Latest news Iridessa gives Joseph O’Brien landmark win at the Breeders’ Cup. Ireland to play Japan in Dublin in November 2020. Gaelic Football. Sport Smartwatches: Shop our Smart Watches Sport Fossil. Visit DICKS Sporting Goods and Shop a Wide Selection of Sports Gear, Equipment, Apparel and Footwear! Get the Top Brands at Competitive Prices.

Detroit sports, Mich. sports, high school sports Detroit News sports.

Sports news for SF Bay Area teams: Giants, As, Warriors, 49ers, Raiders and Sharks, as well as college and high school sports. Sports & Fitness Twitch. Your Hometown Sports Source. may not be published, broadcast, rewritten, or distributed. Your Hometown Sports Source. component footer debug v1 01. Participation. 16 Oct 2019 Western Pennsylvanias best coverage of the Pittsburgh Steelers, Pirates, Penguins, Pitt, Penn State, WPIAL high school sports. Sport Latest sports news from Nottingham and the UK. Get more than the score on the Bucs, Rays, Rowdies, USF, FSU, UF and more from a source you can trust.

Sports The Washington Post.

TheSogoogle - covers sports news, results, fixtures, highlights. Get all the latest sports news from South Africa and around the world. Browse our latest. Indianapolis sports news, scores, schedules, highlights IndyStar. STRIVE brings you the best European football leagues. Watch La Liga and Serie A Seasons 2018 19 Live and On Demand, anywhere and anytime. Sport news The Tribune. Follow the latest Miami and Florida sports updates. Find updates on local pro football, basketball and baseball teams, as well as college and high school sports. Pgoogle - Sports Latest Philadelphia Sports headlines. Get the latest sports news, opinion, analysis, player rankings, scores, standings and videos for NFL, NBA, MLB, NCAA, NHL, Olympics and more. NJ sports news Ngoogle - Bergen Record. Current updates on the latest sports News, Scores, standings, and analysis of your favourite sports Covering Hockey, Baseball, basketball, tennis, football, and. Sports in Westchester, Rockland and Putnam, New York google - Sports news and analysis. Updates, scores and schedules for the Dallas Cowboys, Mavericks, Stars, Texas College & high school football teams from The.

Google - sports Phoenix Arizona sports news, scores.

Sports in Bergen, Passaic, Morris and Essex high schools, as well as Rutgers sports, the Yankees, Mets, Devils, Giants, Knicks and Jets. Premier Sports Home. The Washington Post Sports section provides sports news, video, scores, analysis and updates about high school, college, and pro sports teams, including the. Sports News, Videos, Pictures & Scores Miami Herald. Follow the latest sports news, live scores and results. google -, the european leader in sports.

Summer universiade 2023.

Summer Universiade The Sport Digest. Wesley So clinched the gold medal at the 27th Universiade, also known as athletes by the International University Sports Federation FISU. Winter universiade 2019. FISU International University Sports Federation LinkedIn. Of Calgary students, alumni, and staff will don the maple leaf this summer at the 30th Summer Universiade in Naples, Italy, U SPORTS.

Skeleton sport.

Bobsled CEO says grant will help sport qualify for 2026 Paralympics. Illustration of Winter Sport Bobsleigh Bobsled Graphic Vector Illustration vector art, clipart and stock vectors. Image 66013737. Bobsled for sale. Alberta Bobsleigh Association Edmonton Sport Council. 8 Feb 2018 Home Sport. Cool Runnings 2? Jamaican bobsleigh team qualify for 2018 Winter Olympics blockbusters are getting all female reboots, it almost makes sense that the womens Jamaican bobsleigh team have repeated what. Bobsledding video. Bobsleigh Quick Guide Tutorialspoint. Jamaica Bobsleigh and Skeleton Federation JBSF Ltd. is the governing body for the sport of bobsleigh and skeleton in Jamaica. It was first constituted in 1987.

Boxing news results.

After Two Deaths Days Apart, Boxing Examines Its Risks The New. Franklin Sports pioneered batting gloves and no one does it better. Bundle & Save: Kids Boxing Set Future Champs® Electronic Inflatable Boxing Bag. Sky sports boxing. Full card: Ultimate Boxxer IV Eight boxers, seven fights, one night. Your browser does not currently recognize any of the video formats available. Click here to visit our frequently asked questions about HTML5 video.

Freestyle wrestling rules 2019.

Rules of Freestyle Wrestling Ohio Fitness Garage Blog. Taylor Miller, USA Wrestling Oct. 31, 2019. Macey Kilty battled a Oct. 30, 2019. The draws are out for the second group of U.S. womens freestyle wrestlers. Freestyle wrestling olympics. USAs Jordan Burroughs gold dream ends in freestyle wrestling. 3 Feb 2017 U.S. wrestlers have been banned from participating in the Freestyle World Cup USA Wrestling, the sports domestic governing body who was. Freestyle wrestling 2019. 2018 Freestyle Wrestling Armed Forces 2018 Armed Forces Wr. In 2003 the Olympic Committee accepted Womens Freestyle Wrestling into the An in depth look at the Olympic Sport Freestyle Wrestling from 1972 2017 with.

Wrestling history and facts.

The History Of Wrestling. Athletic Scholarships. 6 Dec 2016 Greco Roman wrestling or classic wrestling is the oldest form of amateur wrestling sports practiced throughout the world. A Greco Roman. Greco roman wrestling champions. Five Point Move U.S. Greco Roman Wrestling on Apple Podcasts. Wrestling Overview Wrestling is a physical combat sport. Just like freestyle, Greco Roman was another style of wrestling that was equally popularized but. Greco roman wrestling holds. Guide To Greco Roman Wrestling Faster Higher Stronger YouTube. Promoting the sport, promoting the athletes, promoting American wrestling. Part of Five Point Move U.S. Greco Roman Wrestling Mat Talk Podcast Network.

Golf sport car.

Sports & Activities More Sports Golf Olympia Sports. These Lore golfing pants are a winner with their innovative two way stretch material and will adapt to any movement on the golf course. The straight cut ensures. Golf news. Men Polo Shirt Sport Golf Sport Collection Collections Porsche. Latest Golfing news from across the world, with results and analysis from our specialist commentators Gulf News.

Equestrian dressage.

The United States Hunter Jumper Association USHJA Equestrian. This page offers an overview of classes at the Equestrian Center and Whether you are new to the sport or an experienced rider, youll gain skills and. Equestrian competition. Equestrian Tickets StubHub. And athletes in partnership with the United States Equestrian Federation. Take a Look Inside the Fascinating World of High Performance Equestrian Sport!.

Short track speed skating schedule.

Speed Skating Special Olympics North Dakota. Feb 14, 2015 Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016 Feb Relationship between strength qualities and short track speed skating performance in young athletes. Speed skating facts. Short Track Speed Skating 2018 Olympics: Full Schedule and How. Speed Skating. The Connecticut Speedskating Club is pleased to host sessions at The Rinks for skaters of all ages and skill levels. The skaters are divided by. Outdoor speed skating. Speed Skating is my Favorite Sport Special Olympics Massachusetts. Short Track Speed Skating today is a lifetime fitness sport for individuals of all ages. Short Track Speed Skating provides both cardiovascular and aerobic. Speed skating rules. Speed Skating Competitions at the Winter Olympics dummies. Share Your Sport Knowledge. Officiate for Special Olympics North Carolina by donating your time as a sports official. Contact sports @google - for more.

Kanō jigorō.

WHAT IS Judo Club Esprit. 10 Aug 2016 Judo was founded in Japan around 1882. Its an aggregate of techniques drawn from various martial arts. Its been an Olympic sport since 1964. Judo youtube. An Introduction To Judo google - Judo, system of unarmed combat, now primarily a sport. The rules of the sport of judo are complex. The objective is to cleanly throw, to pin, or to master the. Judo techniques. Judo as a Sport for Social Justice Fair Observer. 19 Feb 2019: 2nd EC Judo website: google - Update 15 Nov 2018: Added following document: Technical regulation Judo for EC Judo 2019 in.

What is alpine skiing answers.

Alpine Canada CANskiteam Para Alpine. Alpine Simulators recreate all forces of real skiing and snowboarding carving. tool popular with hundreds businesses from snow sports stores to huge malls. Alpine skiing history. Saariselka Ski & Sport Resort The Northernmost Ski Resort in Europe. 7 Nov 2018 For seven years, Marcel Hirscher has been dominating the alpine skiing sport. But how valuable is the Austrian athlete for his sponsors?.

Gymnastics facts.

Gymnastics United Sports. UT RecSports is comprised of Intramurals, Fitness Wellness, Outdoor Recreation, Sport Clubs, Instructional and Informal Recreation and manages over 500000. Types of gymnastics. Gymnastics Kent Sport. Gymnastics, the performance of systematic exercises often with the use of rings, bars, and other apparatus either as a competitive sport or to improve strength. Sport gymnastics wenatchee open gym. Can Gymnastics be a Stress Free Sport?. Rk, Country, Gold, Silver, Bronze, Total. 1, Soviet Union, 72, 67, 43, 182. 2, United States, 36, 42, 36, 114. 3, Japan, 31, 33, 34, 98. 4, Romania, 25, 20, 26, 71.

Handball ball.

Handball Urban Dictionary. Mar 15, 2011 Pacifics handball club team was founded in 1977 and began its involvement with Boxer Handball is generously funded by the Pacific athletic. Skills of handball. Thierry Omeyer of France Rules Handballs Hardest Position The. Handball also known as team handball, European handball or Olympic handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each six outcourt players and a goalkeeper pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team. Handball court. Handball Sports Medicine Basic Science, Injury Management and. Our indoor and outdoor handball courts are used throughout the world by those who value safety and performance for their athletes. Our handball surfaces. Handball players. Handball Two Sports in One Write on Sports. Jun 20, 2012 Handball Is By Far The Coolest Olympic Sport Youve Never Heard Of Today, its all about the up tempo game of team handball.

Water polo ball.

Womens Water Polo Florida Atlantic University Athletics. Water Polo Womens. Competitive club that National Governing Body. Collegiate Water Polo Association Interested in this Sport Club? Submit an Interest. Water polo equipment. Water Polo MIT. Water Polo Scholarships. Water Polo has been around for quite some time now, with the first national championship taking place in 1969. That year the UCLA. Water polo rules. Water Polo Girls San Dimas High. Coverage of St. Louis area high school water polo from stlhighscgoogle - Water polo facts. Womens Water Polo Club Sport Clubs Aztec Receation A.S. Water polo places a contact sport in the water and works with goals, offense and defense and, of course, strategy. As a player you must be a skilled swimmer,.

Sailing boat.

Sailing google - UF Rec Sports University of Florida. Sports. Mens Sports. Mens Sports. Baseball Schedule Roster Twitter. Sailing Home Coaches Roster Schedule News Archives Record. Sailing olympic sport. Sailing can be sustainable and the time to act is now! – 11th Hour. Learn the basics to sailing in our beginners guide here. Rules of Sailing. The fundamental rules and principles that govern the sport of sailing.

Professional cross country skiing.

Cross Country Ski Gear Fontana Sports. Feb 10, 2018 The sport of biathlon has a long history among northern European for why there is an Olympic sport that combines cross country skiing and. Cross - country skiing technique. Sports Cardiology of Cross Country Skiing Sochi Postcard. May 6, 2019 Dont give up on winter sports! Learn how to cross country ski with a baby. Dont let the kids keep you inside this winter. Bring them on an. Cross country skiing competition. Cross Country Skiing TrailLink. Feb 14, 2018 Cross country skiing might seem easy, since its a sport anyone can pick up. But at the Olympic level, its a brutally exhausting event.

Freestyle skiing slopestyle.

Freestyle Skiing Program Okemo Mountain School Ludlow. Freestyle skiing is a fun, acrobatic, risky mountain sport that began in the 1930s. Some people believed that this style of skiing was too dangerous because it. Freestyle skiers names. Freestyle skiing pedia. PNSAs competition program is the first step for Freestyle competitors to national and international amateur sports competition. PNSA is a non profit organization. Freestyle skiing equipment. How to sound smart during the Winter Olympics: Freestyle Skiing. In the Olympic debut of halfpipe and slopestyle skiing in 2014, the U.S. from the sport, the U.S. has seen a new era of moguls and aerials specialists emerge. Freestyle skiing moguls. Pacific Northwest Ski Association Sports Freestyle. The discipline of freestyle skiing includes every aspect of the sport all rolled into one. The disciplines that fall under the Freestyle umbrella include slopestyle,.

Figure skating schedule.

Figure Skating STOP Sports Injuries. Home Individual Sports Figure Skating The Schedule is now posted for the 31st Annual ShopRite Nutmeg State Games Figure Skating Competition hosted. Figure skating competitions. USA Roller Sports Figure Skating Team USA. The Middletown Sports Complex offers classes for all ages and levels of skaters. Want to be a better hockey player, figure skater, or just have fun skating,. Figure skating olympics. About Us Welcome to US Figure Skating. Whats it all about? Ice skating is a hugely popular activity that forms the basis of many sports in the Winter Olympics, including figure skating and speed skating.

Fencing sport equipment.

Radical Fencing The Best Equipment & Gear For The Sport of. Oct 30, 2005 One of Mr. Tiomkins first coaches, Bruce Gillman, the fencing coach at Vassar, said that interest in the sport had been galvanized by the. Fencing sport near me. Athleticism vs LARPing: An amateurs guide to Sport Fencing vs. FIE Federate International Escrime is a governing board for the fencing sport. All international tournaments require fencers to use FIE approved equipment. Fencing olympics. Lightsaber dueling recognized as official sport in France The Verge. At En Garde Fencing, we believe in bringing a sense of fun and adventure to the sport of fencing. Call us at 707 433 8102 to get your free trial!!.

Triathlon events.

IRONMAN Triathlon Beach and Sport Towels IRONMAN Store. Team Sheeper Triathlon is for athletes interested in a challenging and positive Team Sheeper aims to channel our passion for athletic endeavors into benefits. Triathlon ironman. Notable events. Your source for all the triathlon words and phrases you need to get to the start Multisport: A sport consisting of more than one discipline, including triathlon,. Triathlon distance. Training Tips for Your First Triathlon REI Expert Advice google - Photos from International Triathlon Union World Championship Beijing. Triathlon is a sport catching on quickly in the modern Middle Kingdom. This site has. Olympic triathlon record. Immortal Sport Creating Sporting Opportunities for Local. Save on in stock triathlon equipment and triathlon wetsuits. Get same day shipping on triathlon gear from 2XU, Orca, DeSoto, TYR, Zoot and many other brands.

Tennis atp.

Sportime NY Amagansett about. Vente en Gros tennis de Lots à Petit Prix tennis, Achetez à des Grossistes Classic Kicks Vintage Tennis, Atp Tennis, Nike Tennis, Sport Tennis, Tennis Stars. Federer. Tournament Schedule. A permit is required to use an outdoor Tennis Court in NYC from the first Saturday of April to the Sunday before Thanksgiving. Visit Our Tennis Shop at 18th.

Archery for beginners.

WVSSAC to recognize archery as a sanctioned sport WVMetroNews. 5 Aug 2016 Compound Archery Shoots for Olympic Inclusion secretary general of the World Archery Federation, the sports international governing body,. Archery price. Archery Gives Bhutan Its Sporting Chance The New York Times. 28 Feb 2019 A business in Montgomery is looking to grow the sport of archery in the Fox Valley. Archery rules. 25 Reasons Archery is Good For Kids tgoogle - Abstract The aim of this study was to introduce certain methods and research techniques and to present the results of experiments on parameters of archery.

Types of diving.

Diving sport pedia. Diving is one of the most exciting sports in the world. It involves leaping and springing into water, while trying to perfect a series of perfect body positions. But it is. Diving sport training. Scuba diving equipment by Mares. 25 Oct 2018 Bonnier Dive Group has appointed Scuba Diving deputy editor Mary as editor in chief of Scuba Diving, Sport Diver and The Undersea. Diving moves. What Diving Parents Should Know Windy City Diving. Northern, Central, Eastern, Blue Ridge. Regional Representative: Rod Montrie Madeira School, Regional Representative: Mike Peters Collegiate School.

Dog sled team diagram.

Dog Sledding History & The Iditarod Alaska Shore Excursions. 2 Feb 2018 The sport of sled dog racing is one of the most physically grueling in the world. Last night we began our three part series Sled Dog Racing. Iditarod trail sled dog race. Meet Todays Sled Dogs – American Kennel Club. Make the trip to Grand County, Colorado for a truly exhilarating winter adventure and experience dog sled rides and dog sled races in the Rocky Mountains. Sled dogs. Vice President for Sport sleddogsportsGB British Sleddog Sports. Racing along with other working dog associated winter sports by organizing a Modern sled dog owners are proud of their dogs as canine athletes that are.

Baseball rules.

Baseball Sports YouTube. Make National Sports your number one Baseball destination, featuring all your favoutite and top brands, Easton, Rawlings, Louisville, Mizuno, Marucci. Be a fan. Baseball scores. Kansas State University Athletics Official Athletics Website. The official Baseball page for Colonial Athletic Association CAA Sports.

Sea games 2019 esports.

Balikbayan Magazine The Global Business & Travel Briefing. The Southeast Asian Games also known as the SEA Games, is a biennial multi sport event involving participants from the current 11 countries of Southeast. Sea games 2027. ESports is Going to Be a Medal Sport at the Southeast Asian Games. 5 Dec 2018 eSports, a fast rising form of competitive video gaming, is gaining traction in the Southeast Asian Games SEA Games. Just like any other sport.

Football pedia.

Professional Football Sports Association pedia. Premier Youth Sports Association is set to open play for the 2019 2020 season on Saturday. Rules of football. Sports insurance quotes, liability, accident. Current FHSAA sports include Baseball, Bowling, Basketball, Competitive Cheerleading, Cross Country, Flag Football, Football, Golf, Lacrosse, Soccer, Softball,. History of association football. Football Argyle Youth Sports Association. Alexa Szvitacs finds hope through sport. Imagen. Andrew Parsons speaks at the General Assembly. Classification a top priority: IPC President. Imagen. Football information. Google - Colorado High School Sports News. 10 Aug 2016 BBC Sport 2010a PFA chief says homophobia not high on football Cleland, J 2015 Discussing homosexuality on association football fan.

Commonwealth games sports 2018.

Yay Sports! Sydney Might Host The 2022 Commonwealth Games. 1 May 2015 analyses and compares Twitter activity for the niche sport of netball over competition and the international Commonwealth Games event in. Commonwealth games history. Complete coverage of the 2018 Winter Olympics in South Korea on. 9 Apr 2018 The Gold Coast Commonwealth Games 2018 is the largest major sporting event to integrate para sports. But the inclusiveness of the Games. Commonwealth games sports 2022. Middle Atlantic Conference. 14 Aug 2019 The overall total cost of the 2022 Commonwealth Games will be £778m, making it the most expensive sports event Britain has hosted since the.

Basketball history.

1.000 Words: The 25 best basketball players in the Mountain West. 12 hours ago Editors Note: The 10th in a series of articles previewing mens basketball teams in the Pac 12 Conference. The expectations are higher than. Basketball players. Basketball Instructional & Free Training Videos SportsEdTV. Shop basketball gear and basketball equipment from DICKS Sporting Goods. Learn about each players role on the court to get a better grasp of the game. Basketball court. International Basketball Federation FIBA FIBA. basketball. 9 hours ago Both are avid basketball players and spend plenty of time together on the court, in AAU and for the Roadrunners. At 6 foot 7 and 225 pounds,. Basketball rules. I9 Sports Basketball. The Canterbury Basketball Rep Academy is designed to give players the opportunity Basketball New Zealand recommends a limit of 15 hours a week of sport.

Commonwealth games 2019.

Pan Am Games bring past games to mind – Beach Metro. 1930, British, Empire, Games The, 1930, British, Empire, Games,were,the,first,of,what,later. British empire video games. Category: Commonwealth Games pedia. When the British finally left India in 1947, they divided the Indian subcontinent, creating an in the Indian independence movement through their participation in the 1930s Salt March. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. It used to be a colony ruled by the British Empire. Commonwealth games history. New Zealand at the 1930. Mar 17, 2010 The intersections between sport and empire, and between sport and the of a signature imperial event founded in 1930, the British Empire Games. The first British Empire Games, held in Hamilton, Ontario, are often portrayed.

Central american and caribbean games 2019.

ESPN Deportes to Offer Exclusive Coverage of the XXIII Central. Games will be November 14 30, 2014 in Veracruz, Mexico Thread for T&T athletes who will be competing in all sports except Track and Field. Central american games 2022. Felix Earns Bronze Medal at Central American and Caribbean Games. 25 Jul 2018 The Central American and Caribbean Games are a multi sport regional championship event, held once every four years. Belizes participation. Juegos centroamericanos y del caribe 2018. Sports Channel5google - Sport Material at Fundacion Luis Muñoz Marin Puerto Rico http: luisgoogle - flmm sobre el archivo historico. Collection Description: El Archivo.

Mens biathlon.

Team Birkie Biathlon American Birkebeiner. The Casper Mountain Biathlon Club recently introduced this winter sport to youngsters at the Boys & Girls Club in Casper. Rob Rosser, a Paralympic Nordic and. What is a biathlon running and swimming. Biathlon Discovery formula ESF Argentiere. Have questions about Biathlon? Let these Olympic skiers explain the rules. The biathlon is a.

Seattle 1990 goodwill games official medallion.

Theas Galleria: Sports Illustrated at the Goodwill Games. The Goodwill Games, to be held August 29 September 9, 2001, in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia will feature 14 sports athletics, basketball, beach volleyball,. Goodwill games 1994. News Goodwill Games 2018 Bahamas Swimming Federation. Vtg 1990 SEATTLE Goodwill Games T SHIRT XL NOS unworn sport event Cycling Black. Fruit of the Loom Short Sleeve Unisex Adult T Shirts. Muay Thai. Goodwill games 1998. GOODWILL GAMES AN OUTDATED IDEAL Chicago Tribune. Jul 17, 1998 The point is, the Goodwill Games - a 15 sport spectacle starring 1.500 athletes from 60 countries - are affordable, a minor item for a n3.3. Goodwill games 2019. Wide World of Sports Goodwill Games Full Episode TV Guide. Facing five veteran teams that following the Goodwill Games would go on to Held in St, Petersburg, Russia, at the Lenin Sport & Concert Complex, the USA.

Indian ocean games football.

Zara Lennon Womens Tennis Long Beach State University Athletics. Aug 2, 2015 The 9th edition of the IOIG, a multi sport event with also a youth and such sporting events as the Indian Ocean Island Games as occasions for. Indian ocean island games 2019 schedule. Organisation. Apr 20, 2019 Posts about Indian Ocean Island Games IOIG 2019 written by All was launched by the Minister of Youth and Sports, Mr Stephan Toussaint,.

How to make jumping stilts.

Sport Toys Gift Jumping Stilts 1 Pair Kids Funny Plastic Balance. Jumping stilts, windsurfing and BMX biking are great ways to learn new skills and It is considered an extreme sport but it can be safe if you start modestly,. Jumping shoes. Top 5 Best Jumping Stilts Review Ask your fitness question. 9 Oct 2016. Are jumping stilts – the modern extreme recreations equipment – acutely dangerous? One have a look at these radical brand new types. Police jumping stilts. Best Stilts Buying Guide GistGear. 2018 Online shopping for popular & hot Jump Stilt Shoes from Toys & Hobbies, Sports & Entertainment and more related Jump Stilt Shoes like sport jump shoe,.

Olympic games 2020.

Olympic Ball Games Around the World One World Play Project. Badminton became an official sport at the Barcelona 1992 Olympic Games. The competition at Tokyo 2020 will consist of mens and womens singles, mens and. Olympic games list. Petition Enter the Sport of Arm Wrestling into the Olympic games. 22 Oct 2018 Organization & Legal Structure of the Olympic Games To locate a particular IF, click on the sport at the Olympic website. Athletes and. 2020 winter olympics. Olympic games article Ancient Greece Khan Academy. 8 Feb 2018 When cities decide to make a bid to host the Olympic Games, there are Facilities have the possibility to increase sport opportunities to the.

Free and no ads
no need to download or install

Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

online intellectual game →